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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents.
N Engl J Med. 2020 07 23; 383(4):334-346.NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Understanding the epidemiology and clinical course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its temporal association with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is important, given the clinical and public health implications of the syndrome.

METHODS

We conducted targeted surveillance for MIS-C from March 15 to May 20, 2020, in pediatric health centers across the United States. The case definition included six criteria: serious illness leading to hospitalization, an age of less than 21 years, fever that lasted for at least 24 hours, laboratory evidence of inflammation, multisystem organ involvement, and evidence of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), antibody testing, or exposure to persons with Covid-19 in the past month. Clinicians abstracted the data onto standardized forms.

RESULTS

We report on 186 patients with MIS-C in 26 states. The median age was 8.3 years, 115 patients (62%) were male, 135 (73%) had previously been healthy, 131 (70%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR or antibody testing, and 164 (88%) were hospitalized after April 16, 2020. Organ-system involvement included the gastrointestinal system in 171 patients (92%), cardiovascular in 149 (80%), hematologic in 142 (76%), mucocutaneous in 137 (74%), and respiratory in 131 (70%). The median duration of hospitalization was 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 10); 148 patients (80%) received intensive care, 37 (20%) received mechanical ventilation, 90 (48%) received vasoactive support, and 4 (2%) died. Coronary-artery aneurysms (z scores ≥2.5) were documented in 15 patients (8%), and Kawasaki's disease-like features were documented in 74 (40%). Most patients (171 [92%]) had elevations in at least four biomarkers indicating inflammation. The use of immunomodulating therapies was common: intravenous immune globulin was used in 144 (77%), glucocorticoids in 91 (49%), and interleukin-6 or 1RA inhibitors in 38 (20%).

CONCLUSIONS

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 led to serious and life-threatening illness in previously healthy children and adolescents. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).From the COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (L.R.F., E.B.R., J.P.C., M.W.T., M.M.P.), and the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (K.M.T.), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases (P.J.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology (M.E.O.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (L.R.F., E.B.R., M.M.P.), and the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (B.J.R.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University (S.M. Horwitz), the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Population Health, Quality, and Implementation Sciences (PopQuIS), Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (L.C.K.), New Brunswick, the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel, Newark (R.F.W.), the Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack (K.N.C.), and the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston (S.J.G.) - all in New Jersey; the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (M.M.N., A.G.R.), the Division of Immunology (M.B.F.S.), and the Department of Cardiology (J.W.N.), Boston Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (M.B.F.S., J.W.N., A.G.R.) and Anaesthesia (A.G.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, and the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (K.L.M.) - both in Massachusetts; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Central Michigan University, Detroit (S.M. Heidemann, A.A.M.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital at Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla (A.R.S., S.L.), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at the Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital (S.P.Z., J.G.), the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine (A.J.R.), Pediatric Critical Care, New York City Health and Hospitals, Kings County Hospital (M.A.K., H.A.), the Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University (S.D.), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Maimonides Children's Hospital (A.D.), New York - all in New York; the Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.C.F.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven (J.S.G., A.G.), and the Division of Critical Care, Connecticut Children's, Hartford (R.M.P., C.L.C.) - both in Connecticut; the Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (A.B.M.); the Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Advocate Children's Hospital, Chicago (V.H., S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (H.B.), and the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital (A.L.), Cleveland; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans (T.T.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (L.S.S.); the Pediatric Critical Care Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (A.C.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.V.H.); and the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (N.B.H.).No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32598831

Citation

Feldstein, Leora R., et al. "Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 383, no. 4, 2020, pp. 334-346.
Feldstein LR, Rose EB, Horwitz SM, et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(4):334-346.
Feldstein, L. R., Rose, E. B., Horwitz, S. M., Collins, J. P., Newhams, M. M., Son, M. B. F., Newburger, J. W., Kleinman, L. C., Heidemann, S. M., Martin, A. A., Singh, A. R., Li, S., Tarquinio, K. M., Jaggi, P., Oster, M. E., Zackai, S. P., Gillen, J., Ratner, A. J., Walsh, R. F., ... Randolph, A. G. (2020). Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents. The New England Journal of Medicine, 383(4), 334-346. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021680
Feldstein LR, et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2020 07 23;383(4):334-346. PubMed PMID: 32598831.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents. AU - Feldstein,Leora R, AU - Rose,Erica B, AU - Horwitz,Steven M, AU - Collins,Jennifer P, AU - Newhams,Margaret M, AU - Son,Mary Beth F, AU - Newburger,Jane W, AU - Kleinman,Lawrence C, AU - Heidemann,Sabrina M, AU - Martin,Amarilis A, AU - Singh,Aalok R, AU - Li,Simon, AU - Tarquinio,Keiko M, AU - Jaggi,Preeti, AU - Oster,Matthew E, AU - Zackai,Sheemon P, AU - Gillen,Jennifer, AU - Ratner,Adam J, AU - Walsh,Rowan F, AU - Fitzgerald,Julie C, AU - Keenaghan,Michael A, AU - Alharash,Hussam, AU - Doymaz,Sule, AU - Clouser,Katharine N, AU - Giuliano,John S,Jr AU - Gupta,Anjali, AU - Parker,Robert M, AU - Maddux,Aline B, AU - Havalad,Vinod, AU - Ramsingh,Stacy, AU - Bukulmez,Hulya, AU - Bradford,Tamara T, AU - Smith,Lincoln S, AU - Tenforde,Mark W, AU - Carroll,Christopher L, AU - Riggs,Becky J, AU - Gertz,Shira J, AU - Daube,Ariel, AU - Lansell,Amanda, AU - Coronado Munoz,Alvaro, AU - Hobbs,Charlotte V, AU - Marohn,Kimberly L, AU - Halasa,Natasha B, AU - Patel,Manish M, AU - Randolph,Adrienne G, AU - ,, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/06/29/ PY - 2020/7/1/pubmed PY - 2020/7/31/medline PY - 2020/6/30/entrez SP - 334 EP - 346 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med VL - 383 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiology and clinical course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its temporal association with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is important, given the clinical and public health implications of the syndrome. METHODS: We conducted targeted surveillance for MIS-C from March 15 to May 20, 2020, in pediatric health centers across the United States. The case definition included six criteria: serious illness leading to hospitalization, an age of less than 21 years, fever that lasted for at least 24 hours, laboratory evidence of inflammation, multisystem organ involvement, and evidence of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), antibody testing, or exposure to persons with Covid-19 in the past month. Clinicians abstracted the data onto standardized forms. RESULTS: We report on 186 patients with MIS-C in 26 states. The median age was 8.3 years, 115 patients (62%) were male, 135 (73%) had previously been healthy, 131 (70%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR or antibody testing, and 164 (88%) were hospitalized after April 16, 2020. Organ-system involvement included the gastrointestinal system in 171 patients (92%), cardiovascular in 149 (80%), hematologic in 142 (76%), mucocutaneous in 137 (74%), and respiratory in 131 (70%). The median duration of hospitalization was 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 10); 148 patients (80%) received intensive care, 37 (20%) received mechanical ventilation, 90 (48%) received vasoactive support, and 4 (2%) died. Coronary-artery aneurysms (z scores ≥2.5) were documented in 15 patients (8%), and Kawasaki's disease-like features were documented in 74 (40%). Most patients (171 [92%]) had elevations in at least four biomarkers indicating inflammation. The use of immunomodulating therapies was common: intravenous immune globulin was used in 144 (77%), glucocorticoids in 91 (49%), and interleukin-6 or 1RA inhibitors in 38 (20%). CONCLUSIONS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 led to serious and life-threatening illness in previously healthy children and adolescents. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32598831/full_citation L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2021680?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -