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Certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2020 Jun 27; 143:111499.FC

Abstract

Food, Drug, & Cosmetic (FD&C) dyes are synthetic color additives used in food, prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines (OTCs). Consumption of FD&C dyes has been associated with neurobehavioral behavior in some children. The amount of dye used in commercial products is proprietary, making it difficult to assess dietary intake and determine exposure in children. To date, no studies have examined FD&C dyes in OTCs or vitamins in the United States. To address this, FD&C Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, Yellow No. 6, Blue No. 1, and Blue No. 2 levels were measured in prenatal vitamin tablets, children's chewable and gummy vitamins, pain reliever tablets and syrups, and cough/cold/allergy tablets and syrups. Dyes were isolated using solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dye levels varied between products with highest levels in pain reliever and cough/cold/allergy syrups. Significant variability was observed within some brands. Degradation of Red No. 40, Blue No. 1, and Yellow No. 6 was observed in the vitamin gummies. Intake of FD&C Red No. 40 is two times the US FDA ADI (accepted daily intake) for some children's pain reliever syrups and almost three times the US FDA ADI for some cough/cold/allergy syrups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA, USA.Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA USA.Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address: aemitchell@ucdavis.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32599104

Citation

Lehmkuhler, Arlie L., et al. "Certified Food Dyes in Over the Counter Medicines and Supplements Marketed for Children and Pregnant Women." Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 143, 2020, p. 111499.
Lehmkuhler AL, Miller MD, Bradman A, et al. Certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women. Food Chem Toxicol. 2020;143:111499.
Lehmkuhler, A. L., Miller, M. D., Bradman, A., Castroina, R., & Mitchell, A. E. (2020). Certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women. Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 143, 111499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111499
Lehmkuhler AL, et al. Certified Food Dyes in Over the Counter Medicines and Supplements Marketed for Children and Pregnant Women. Food Chem Toxicol. 2020 Jun 27;143:111499. PubMed PMID: 32599104.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women. AU - Lehmkuhler,Arlie L, AU - Miller,Mark D, AU - Bradman,Asa, AU - Castroina,Rosemary, AU - Mitchell,Alyson E, Y1 - 2020/06/27/ PY - 2020/02/25/received PY - 2020/06/01/revised PY - 2020/06/03/accepted PY - 2020/7/1/pubmed PY - 2020/7/1/medline PY - 2020/6/30/entrez KW - FD&C dyes KW - Gummies KW - High performance liquid chromatography KW - Over-the-counter medicine KW - Vitamins SP - 111499 EP - 111499 JF - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association JO - Food Chem. Toxicol. VL - 143 N2 - Food, Drug, & Cosmetic (FD&C) dyes are synthetic color additives used in food, prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines (OTCs). Consumption of FD&C dyes has been associated with neurobehavioral behavior in some children. The amount of dye used in commercial products is proprietary, making it difficult to assess dietary intake and determine exposure in children. To date, no studies have examined FD&C dyes in OTCs or vitamins in the United States. To address this, FD&C Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, Yellow No. 6, Blue No. 1, and Blue No. 2 levels were measured in prenatal vitamin tablets, children's chewable and gummy vitamins, pain reliever tablets and syrups, and cough/cold/allergy tablets and syrups. Dyes were isolated using solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dye levels varied between products with highest levels in pain reliever and cough/cold/allergy syrups. Significant variability was observed within some brands. Degradation of Red No. 40, Blue No. 1, and Yellow No. 6 was observed in the vitamin gummies. Intake of FD&C Red No. 40 is two times the US FDA ADI (accepted daily intake) for some children's pain reliever syrups and almost three times the US FDA ADI for some cough/cold/allergy syrups. SN - 1873-6351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32599104/Certified_Food_Dyes_in_Over_the_Counter_Medicines_and_Supplements_Marketed_for_Children_and_Pregnant_Women L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-6915(20)30389-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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