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Morphological diversity of the metathoracic spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).
Micron. 2020 Jun 06; 137:102878.M

Abstract

Spiracles are the openings in the exoskeleton of insects through which air enters into the respiratory system that is formed by a series of tubes called tracheae. They are primarily located on the abdomen, but can also occur on the thorax, including the metathorax. An insect metathoracic spiracle is usually composed of an external opening and a more internal filter apparatus. We propose new terminology for these structures, and we explore the value in their use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies within the true bug infraorder Pentatomomorpha, with emphasis on the superfamily Lygaeoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera). These structures were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Two types of metathoracic spiracle external openings were recognized: a narrow opening (type N), which is slit-like; and a wide opening (type W), with internal fine structures located between the mesothoracic and metathoracic margins of the interpleural suture clearly visible. The filter apparatus in the Pentatomomorpha consists of modified mushroom bodies of the metathoracic scent gland evaporatorium, for which the term mycoid filter processes is proposed. Eight different types of mycoid filter processes, and an unmodified microsculpture type (a type with usual cuticular microsculpture) and filter setae can be found on the anterior or posterior margins of the metathoracic spiracle. We believe the wide opening (type W) to be the plesiomorphic character state in the Pentatomomorpha, with multiple, independent transformations leading to the narrow opening in Lygaeoidea. Considerable variability in the structure of the spiracle opening (in Lygaeoidea), and in the structure of the mycoid filter processes (in Pentatomomorpha) was detected. Overall, we found the morphology of these structures to be of limited value concerning the taxonomy or for determining phylogenetic relationships of the higher taxa (families) of Pentatomomorpha, but they may be useful as additional evidence for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at the generic and perhaps the tribal levels.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address: zyan@mail.nankai.edu.cn.Department of Entomology, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, 193 00, Praha, Horní Počernice, Czech Republic. Electronic address: sigara@post.cz.Hainan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, 165 West Haixiu Road, Haikou, Hainan, 570311, China. Electronic address: caibohnciq@163.com.Co-Innovation Center for the Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China. Electronic address: cqgao@njfu.edu.cn.Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address: wenjunbu@nankai.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32599357

Citation

Zhang, Yan, et al. "Morphological Diversity of the Metathoracic Spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)." Micron (Oxford, England : 1993), vol. 137, 2020, p. 102878.
Zhang Y, Kment P, Cai B, et al. Morphological diversity of the metathoracic spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Micron. 2020;137:102878.
Zhang, Y., Kment, P., Cai, B., Gao, C. Q., Shi, X. Q., Liu, H. X., Ye, Z., & Bu, W. J. (2020). Morphological diversity of the metathoracic spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Micron (Oxford, England : 1993), 137, 102878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2020.102878
Zhang Y, et al. Morphological Diversity of the Metathoracic Spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Micron. 2020 Jun 6;137:102878. PubMed PMID: 32599357.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Morphological diversity of the metathoracic spiracle in the Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). AU - Zhang,Yan, AU - Kment,Petr, AU - Cai,Bo, AU - Gao,Cui-Qing, AU - Shi,Xue-Qin, AU - Liu,Hua-Xi, AU - Ye,Zhen, AU - Bu,Wen-Jun, Y1 - 2020/06/06/ PY - 2019/12/10/received PY - 2020/03/23/revised PY - 2020/04/28/accepted PY - 2020/7/1/pubmed PY - 2020/7/1/medline PY - 2020/6/30/entrez KW - Filter process KW - Metathoracic spiracle KW - Scanning electron microscopy KW - Scent gland KW - Terminology SP - 102878 EP - 102878 JF - Micron (Oxford, England : 1993) JO - Micron VL - 137 N2 - Spiracles are the openings in the exoskeleton of insects through which air enters into the respiratory system that is formed by a series of tubes called tracheae. They are primarily located on the abdomen, but can also occur on the thorax, including the metathorax. An insect metathoracic spiracle is usually composed of an external opening and a more internal filter apparatus. We propose new terminology for these structures, and we explore the value in their use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies within the true bug infraorder Pentatomomorpha, with emphasis on the superfamily Lygaeoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera). These structures were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Two types of metathoracic spiracle external openings were recognized: a narrow opening (type N), which is slit-like; and a wide opening (type W), with internal fine structures located between the mesothoracic and metathoracic margins of the interpleural suture clearly visible. The filter apparatus in the Pentatomomorpha consists of modified mushroom bodies of the metathoracic scent gland evaporatorium, for which the term mycoid filter processes is proposed. Eight different types of mycoid filter processes, and an unmodified microsculpture type (a type with usual cuticular microsculpture) and filter setae can be found on the anterior or posterior margins of the metathoracic spiracle. We believe the wide opening (type W) to be the plesiomorphic character state in the Pentatomomorpha, with multiple, independent transformations leading to the narrow opening in Lygaeoidea. Considerable variability in the structure of the spiracle opening (in Lygaeoidea), and in the structure of the mycoid filter processes (in Pentatomomorpha) was detected. Overall, we found the morphology of these structures to be of limited value concerning the taxonomy or for determining phylogenetic relationships of the higher taxa (families) of Pentatomomorpha, but they may be useful as additional evidence for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at the generic and perhaps the tribal levels. SN - 1878-4291 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32599357/Morphological_diversity_of_the_metathoracic_spiracle_in_the_Lygaeoidea_(Hemiptera:_Heteroptera) L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0968-4328(20)30127-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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