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Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group.
Radiology. 2020 Jun 30 [Online ahead of print]R

Abstract

Appropriate imaging is imperative in evaluating children with a primary hepatic malignancy such as hepatoblastoma or hepatocellular carcinoma. For use in the adult patient population, the American College of Radiology created the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) to provide consistent terminology and to improve imaging interpretation. At present, no similar consensus exists to guide imaging and interpretation of pediatric patients at risk for developing a liver neoplasm or how best to evaluate a pediatric patient with a known liver neoplasm. Therefore, a new Pediatric Working Group within American College of Radiology LI-RADS was created to provide consensus for imaging recommendations and interpretation of pediatric liver neoplasms. The article was drafted based on the most up-to-date existing information as interpreted by imaging experts comprising the Pediatric LI-RADS Working Group. Guidance is provided regarding appropriate imaging modalities and protocols, as well as imaging interpretation and reporting, with the goals to improve imaging quality, to decrease image interpretation errors, to enhance communication with referrers, and to advance patient care. An expanded version of this document that includes broader background information on pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma and rationale for recommendations can be found in Appendix E1 (online).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (G.R.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.H.S.); Department of Radiology, Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Ga (A.A.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (G.B.C.); Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (V.C.); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (J.T.D.); Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (G.K.); Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (R.K.); Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (P.M.M.); Nemours Children's Hospital, Nemours Children's Health System, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Fla (D.J.P.); Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif (C.B.S.); Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio (A.J.T.); and Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (A.J.T.).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32602829

Citation

Schooler, Gary R., et al. "Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations From American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group." Radiology, 2020, p. 200751.
Schooler GR, Squires JH, Alazraki A, et al. Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. Radiology. 2020.
Schooler, G. R., Squires, J. H., Alazraki, A., Chavhan, G. B., Chernyak, V., Davis, J. T., Khanna, G., Krishnamurthy, R., Lungren, M. P., Masand, P. M., Podberesky, D. J., Sirlin, C. B., & Towbin, A. J. (2020). Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. Radiology, 200751. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200751
Schooler GR, et al. Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations From American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. Radiology. 2020 Jun 30;200751. PubMed PMID: 32602829.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pediatric Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Other Hepatic Neoplasms: Consensus Imaging Recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. AU - Schooler,Gary R, AU - Squires,Judy H, AU - Alazraki,Adina, AU - Chavhan,Govind B, AU - Chernyak,Victoria, AU - Davis,Joseph T, AU - Khanna,Geetika, AU - Krishnamurthy,Rajesh, AU - Lungren,Matthew P, AU - Masand,Prakash M, AU - Podberesky,Daniel J, AU - Sirlin,Claude B, AU - Towbin,Alexander J, Y1 - 2020/06/30/ PY - 2020/7/1/entrez SP - 200751 EP - 200751 JF - Radiology JO - Radiology N2 - Appropriate imaging is imperative in evaluating children with a primary hepatic malignancy such as hepatoblastoma or hepatocellular carcinoma. For use in the adult patient population, the American College of Radiology created the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) to provide consistent terminology and to improve imaging interpretation. At present, no similar consensus exists to guide imaging and interpretation of pediatric patients at risk for developing a liver neoplasm or how best to evaluate a pediatric patient with a known liver neoplasm. Therefore, a new Pediatric Working Group within American College of Radiology LI-RADS was created to provide consensus for imaging recommendations and interpretation of pediatric liver neoplasms. The article was drafted based on the most up-to-date existing information as interpreted by imaging experts comprising the Pediatric LI-RADS Working Group. Guidance is provided regarding appropriate imaging modalities and protocols, as well as imaging interpretation and reporting, with the goals to improve imaging quality, to decrease image interpretation errors, to enhance communication with referrers, and to advance patient care. An expanded version of this document that includes broader background information on pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma and rationale for recommendations can be found in Appendix E1 (online). SN - 1527-1315 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32602829/Pediatric_Hepatoblastoma,_Hepatocellular_Carcinoma,_and_Other_Hepatic_Neoplasms:_Consensus_Imaging_Recommendations_from_American_College_of_Radiology_Pediatric_Liver_Reporting_and_Data_System_(LI-RADS)_Working_Group L2 - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2020200751?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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