Clinical and electroencephalographic features of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Southwest China.Epilepsy Behav. 2020 Jun 27; 111:107240.EB
This study was conducted to analyze the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with benign partial epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) in Southwest China, to address the question of what the risk factors are for patients with BECTS who suffer from ADHD.
Overall 118 right-handed children with BECTS were included from two medical centers. Of them, 29 patients were with diagnosed ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) at baseline, and the remaining were considered as typical BECTS. Clinical and EEG characteristics were collected at baseline and follow-up endpoint of one year. All the patients completed an eight-hour video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) without sedation at those two time points using a digital system with international 10-20 array electrode placement. At the follow-up endpoint, we also evaluated the intelligence level of all patients using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Multivariate logistical regression model was performed to assess the risk factors of ADHD in BECTS patients.
Compared with typical BECTS, patients with BECTS-ADHD had an earlier age of onset, a longer disease course and tended to have lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Their epileptiform discharges were more likely to diffuse to one or both hemispheres, and a higher percentage of patients with BECTS-ADHD patients needed multitherapy to control seizures. Multivariate analysis showed that age of onset, disease course, intelligence score, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and bilateral or diffusing discharges were independently associated with the occurrence of ADHD in patients with BECTS (p < .05). Additionally, we found that delayed diagnosis (37.3%) and nonadherence to treatment (16.1%) were the main reasons of a long disease course.
Benign partial epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes with ADHD has the characteristics of early age of onset, long course of disease and low intelligence score. In addition, the epileptiform discharges of BECTS-ADHD were prone to be bilateral or diffuse, and polypharmacological treatment is also common in this group.