Gonococcal resistance can be viewed productively as part of a syndemic of antimicrobial resistance: an ecological analysis of 30 European countries.Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2020 Jun 30; 9(1):97.AR
It is unclear how important bystander selection is in the genesis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
We assessed bystander selection in a novel way. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to assess if country-level prevalence of gonococcal AMR in 30 European countries predicts homologous AMR in other bacteria. The data used was from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network.
The prevalence of gonococcal ciprofloxacin resistance was found to be positively associated with AMR prevalence in E. coli (coef. 0.52; P = 0.007), Acinetobacter spp. (coef. 0.13; P = 0.044) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (coef. 0.36; P = 0.020) but not Klebsiella pneumoniae. Azithromycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was positively associated with macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae (coef. 0.01; P = 0.018). No association was found for cephalosporins.
Gonococcal AMR is linked to that in other bacteria. This finding is likely explained by high antimicrobial consumption in affected populations and provides additional motivation for strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programs.