Combating the Coronavirus Pandemic: Early Detection, Medical Treatment, and a Concerted Effort by the Global Community.Research (Wash D C). 2020; 2020:6925296.R
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus, known as 2019-nCoV, a pandemic, as the coronavirus has now infected over 2.6 million people globally and caused more than 185,000 fatalities as of April 23, 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a respiratory illness with symptoms such as dry cough, fever, sudden loss of smell, and, in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. To date, there is no specific vaccine or treatment proven effective against this viral disease. Early and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is thus critical to curbing its spread and improving health outcomes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is commonly used to detect the presence of COVID-19. Other techniques, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and microfluidics, have allowed better disease diagnosis. Here, as part of the effort to expand screening capacity, we review advances and challenges in the rapid detection of COVID-19 by targeting nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies. We also summarize potential treatments and vaccines against COVID-19 and discuss ongoing clinical trials of interventions to reduce viral progression.