Hypervitaminosis A is associated with immunological non-response in HIV-1-infected adults: a case-control study.Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 30 [Online ahead of print]EJ
For people living with HIV, determinants of immunological non-response (INR) to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) have not been fully elucidated. In a case-control study, we evaluated the influence of the nutritional and antioxidant status in HIV-1 adults whose cART was initiated between January 2001 and December 2013. Cases had persistent CD4 counts < 350/μL vs. > 350/μL for controls, after at least 2 years of cART with persistent viral loads (VL) < 50 copies/mL. Twelve cases and twenty-eight control subjects with the same CD4 count at cART initiation were compared for their nutritional and antioxidant status after age adjustment at dosage assessment. Patients were predominantly male (70%), Caucasian (82%) and at AIDS stage (62%). The median age was 53, and the median CD4 count was 245/mm3 for cases and 630/mm3 for controls after a median time of 7 years on cART. Despite higher energy intakes in cases, anthropometric data was comparable between groups who had similar vitamins B9/B12/C/D/E, zinc, citrulline and glutamine levels. Nine cases (75%) and 8 controls (29%) had hypervitaminosis A (> 2.70 μmol/L) (p = 0.030). Cases had lower erythrocyte resistance when exposed to a controlled free radical attack (p = 0.014). Most cases had hypervitaminosis A and altered antioxidant capacities that could affect immunological response. Wide-scale studies are required, but in the meantime, screening of their vitamin A status must be encouraged in these patients.