[Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Eight Typical PhACs in Surface Water and Its Impact on Daphnia magna].Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2020 May 08; 41(5):2239-2246.HJ
The occurrence and risk assessment of eight typical pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in a receiving water body of wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. The results showed that the total concentrations of eight PhACs in summer and winter ranged from 27.6 to 226.4 ng·L-1 and 56.6 to 368.8 ng·L-1, respectively. The concentration of caffeine (16.2-125.8 ng·L-1) was highest, followed by roxithromycin (3.3-89.2 ng·L-1) and ibuprofen (3.6-59.2 ng·L-1). The total ecological risks (mixture risk quotients, MRQ) of eight PhACs to green algae, daphnia, and fish were 1.51, 0.08, and 5.68 in summer and 8.34, 0.22, and 6.45 in winter, respectively. The contribution rates of ketoconazole, erythromycin, and ibuprofen exceeded 49%, 85%, and 92% for MRQ in green algae, daphnia, and fish, respectively. In terms of sensitive species, green algae and fish are the most sensitive to PhACs in winter and summer, respectively. The results of 21 d chronic toxicity showed that mixed PhACs effect normal development and reproduction of Daphnia magna, resulting in an increase in reproductive capacity and swimming activity, and a reduction in heart rate and thoracic limb activity.