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Etiology and characteristics of halitosis in patients of a halitosis center in Northern Italy.
Minerva Stomatol. 2020 Jun; 69(3):174-182.MS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

As there are few studies in Europe describing characteristics of breath malodor for large groups of patients, this retrospective study was designed to analyse the etiology of halitosis among patients attending a breath malodor center in Northern Italy.

METHODS

Clinical records of 547 consecutive patients were reviewed and data on self-perceived halitosis, organoleptic scores, volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels, and oral health condition were extracted and analysed.

RESULTS

The prevalence of intra-oral halitosis was 90.7%. In 21 patients no objective signs of breath malodor could be found. Periodontitis and gingivitis were the main cause of bad breath in 33.9% of subjects and in combination with tongue coating in 55.2%. Only eight subjects have tongue coating as the only cause of halitosis. Ear, nose and throat (ENT)/extra-oral causes were found in 5.2% of the patients. VSC concentrations were lower in the psychogenic halitosis group, whereas no statistically significant differences were detected when comparing intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis except for (CH3)2S.

CONCLUSIONS

Psychogenic halitosis is a rare condition among subjects complaining of suffering from bad breath. The most prevalent cause of halitosis is intra-oral, in particular a combination of tongue coating and periodontal disease. Tongue coating is rarely the primary cause of oral malodor.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy - federica.romano@unito.it.Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.Department of Surgical Sciences, C.I.R. Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32610725

Citation

Romano, Federica, et al. "Etiology and Characteristics of Halitosis in Patients of a Halitosis Center in Northern Italy." Minerva Stomatologica, vol. 69, no. 3, 2020, pp. 174-182.
Romano F, Pigella E, Guzzi N, et al. Etiology and characteristics of halitosis in patients of a halitosis center in Northern Italy. Minerva Stomatol. 2020;69(3):174-182.
Romano, F., Pigella, E., Guzzi, N., Manavella, V., Campanelli, L., & Aimetti, M. (2020). Etiology and characteristics of halitosis in patients of a halitosis center in Northern Italy. Minerva Stomatologica, 69(3), 174-182. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4970.19.04186-4
Romano F, et al. Etiology and Characteristics of Halitosis in Patients of a Halitosis Center in Northern Italy. Minerva Stomatol. 2020;69(3):174-182. PubMed PMID: 32610725.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Etiology and characteristics of halitosis in patients of a halitosis center in Northern Italy. AU - Romano,Federica, AU - Pigella,Enrico, AU - Guzzi,Nicoletta, AU - Manavella,Valeria, AU - Campanelli,Lorena, AU - Aimetti,Mario, PY - 2020/7/3/entrez PY - 2020/7/3/pubmed PY - 2020/7/4/medline SP - 174 EP - 182 JF - Minerva stomatologica JO - Minerva Stomatol VL - 69 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: As there are few studies in Europe describing characteristics of breath malodor for large groups of patients, this retrospective study was designed to analyse the etiology of halitosis among patients attending a breath malodor center in Northern Italy. METHODS: Clinical records of 547 consecutive patients were reviewed and data on self-perceived halitosis, organoleptic scores, volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels, and oral health condition were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: The prevalence of intra-oral halitosis was 90.7%. In 21 patients no objective signs of breath malodor could be found. Periodontitis and gingivitis were the main cause of bad breath in 33.9% of subjects and in combination with tongue coating in 55.2%. Only eight subjects have tongue coating as the only cause of halitosis. Ear, nose and throat (ENT)/extra-oral causes were found in 5.2% of the patients. VSC concentrations were lower in the psychogenic halitosis group, whereas no statistically significant differences were detected when comparing intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis except for (CH3)2S. CONCLUSIONS: Psychogenic halitosis is a rare condition among subjects complaining of suffering from bad breath. The most prevalent cause of halitosis is intra-oral, in particular a combination of tongue coating and periodontal disease. Tongue coating is rarely the primary cause of oral malodor. SN - 1827-174X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32610725/Etiology_and_characteristics_of_halitosis_in_patients_of_a_halitosis_center_in_Northern_Italy DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -