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Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces.
mSphere. 2020 07 01; 5(4)M

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and droplet size on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in a simulated clinically relevant matrix dried on nonporous surfaces. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 decayed more rapidly when either humidity or temperature was increased but that droplet volume (1 to 50 μl) and surface type (stainless steel, plastic, or nitrile glove) did not significantly impact decay rate. At room temperature (24°C), virus half-life ranged from 6.3 to 18.6 h depending on the relative humidity but was reduced to 1.0 to 8.9 h when the temperature was increased to 35°C. These findings suggest that a potential for fomite transmission may persist for hours to days in indoor environments and have implications for assessment of the risk posed by surface contamination in indoor environments.IMPORTANCE Mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and public spaces is critically important to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases while effective vaccines and therapeutics are under development. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is thought to primarily occur through direct person-to-person transfer of infectious respiratory droplets or through aerosol-generating medical procedures. However, contact with contaminated surfaces may also play a significant role. In this context, understanding the factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence on surfaces will enable a more accurate estimation of the risk of contact transmission and inform mitigation strategies. To this end, we have developed a simple mathematical model that can be used to estimate virus decay on nonporous surfaces under a range of conditions and which may be utilized operationally to identify indoor environments in which the virus is most persistent.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.Censeo Consulting Group Inc., Washington, DC, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Operated by Battelle National Biodefense Institute (BNBI) for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA Louis.Altamura@nbacc.dhs.gov.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32611701

Citation

Biryukov, Jennifer, et al. "Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 On Surfaces." MSphere, vol. 5, no. 4, 2020.
Biryukov J, Boydston JA, Dunning RA, et al. Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces. mSphere. 2020;5(4).
Biryukov, J., Boydston, J. A., Dunning, R. A., Yeager, J. J., Wood, S., Reese, A. L., Ferris, A., Miller, D., Weaver, W., Zeitouni, N. E., Phillips, A., Freeburger, D., Hooper, I., Ratnesar-Shumate, S., Yolitz, J., Krause, M., Williams, G., Dawson, D. G., Herzog, A., ... Altamura, L. A. (2020). Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces. MSphere, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00441-20
Biryukov J, et al. Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 On Surfaces. mSphere. 2020 07 1;5(4) PubMed PMID: 32611701.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces. AU - Biryukov,Jennifer, AU - Boydston,Jeremy A, AU - Dunning,Rebecca A, AU - Yeager,John J, AU - Wood,Stewart, AU - Reese,Amy L, AU - Ferris,Allison, AU - Miller,David, AU - Weaver,Wade, AU - Zeitouni,Nathalie E, AU - Phillips,Aaron, AU - Freeburger,Denise, AU - Hooper,Idris, AU - Ratnesar-Shumate,Shanna, AU - Yolitz,Jason, AU - Krause,Melissa, AU - Williams,Gregory, AU - Dawson,David G, AU - Herzog,Artemas, AU - Dabisch,Paul, AU - Wahl,Victoria, AU - Hevey,Michael C, AU - Altamura,Louis A, Y1 - 2020/07/01/ PY - 2020/7/3/entrez PY - 2020/7/3/pubmed PY - 2020/7/17/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - contamination KW - coronavirus KW - fomite KW - half-life KW - humidity KW - temperature KW - transmission JF - mSphere JO - mSphere VL - 5 IS - 4 N2 - Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and droplet size on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in a simulated clinically relevant matrix dried on nonporous surfaces. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 decayed more rapidly when either humidity or temperature was increased but that droplet volume (1 to 50 μl) and surface type (stainless steel, plastic, or nitrile glove) did not significantly impact decay rate. At room temperature (24°C), virus half-life ranged from 6.3 to 18.6 h depending on the relative humidity but was reduced to 1.0 to 8.9 h when the temperature was increased to 35°C. These findings suggest that a potential for fomite transmission may persist for hours to days in indoor environments and have implications for assessment of the risk posed by surface contamination in indoor environments.IMPORTANCE Mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and public spaces is critically important to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases while effective vaccines and therapeutics are under development. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is thought to primarily occur through direct person-to-person transfer of infectious respiratory droplets or through aerosol-generating medical procedures. However, contact with contaminated surfaces may also play a significant role. In this context, understanding the factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence on surfaces will enable a more accurate estimation of the risk of contact transmission and inform mitigation strategies. To this end, we have developed a simple mathematical model that can be used to estimate virus decay on nonporous surfaces under a range of conditions and which may be utilized operationally to identify indoor environments in which the virus is most persistent. SN - 2379-5042 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32611701/Increasing_Temperature_and_Relative_Humidity_Accelerates_Inactivation_of_SARS_CoV_2_on_Surfaces_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00441-20 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -