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Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) methylates alanine tRNA synthetase at Lys-943 in muscle tissue.
J Biol Chem. 2020 Jul 01 [Online ahead of print]JB

Abstract

Protein lysine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) throughout the human proteome that plays important roles in diverse biological processes. In humans, there are >100 known and candidate protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs), many of which are linked to human diseases. Methyltransferase-like protein 21C (METTL21C) is a PKMT implicated in muscle biology that has been reported to methylate valosin-containing protein/p97 (VCP) and heat shock 70kDa protein 8 (HSPA8). However, a clear in vitro methyltransferase activity for METTL21C remains yet to be demonstrated, and whether it is an active enzyme that directly methylates substrate/s in vivo is unclear. Here, we used an unbiased biochemistry-based screening assay coupled to MS, which identified alanine-tRNA-synthetase 1 (AARS1) as a direct substrate of METTL21C. We found that METTL21C catalyzes methylation of Lys-943 of AARS1 (AARS1-K943me) both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro METTL21C-mediated AARS1 methylation was independent of ATP or tRNA molecules. Unlike for AARS1, and in conflict with previous reports, we did not detect METTL21C methylation of VCP and HSPA8. AARS1-K943 methylation in HEK293T cells is dependent upon METTL21C levels. Finally, METTL2C was almost exclusively expressed in muscle tissue, and, accordingly, we detected METTL21C-catalyzed methylation of AARS1 in mouse skeletal muscle tissue. These results reveal that AARS1 is a bona fide in vitro substrate of METTL21C and suggest a role for the METTL21C-AARS1 axis in the regulation of protein synthesis in muscle tissue. Moreover, our study describes a straightforward protocol for elucidating the physiological substrates of poorly characterized or uncharacterized PKMTs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Stanford University, United States.Stanford University, United States.Stanford University, United States.Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, United States.Stanford, United States.Stanford University, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32611769

Citation

Zoabi, Muhammad, et al. "Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) Methylates Alanine tRNA Synthetase at Lys-943 in Muscle Tissue." The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2020.
Zoabi M, Zhang L, Li TM, et al. Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) methylates alanine tRNA synthetase at Lys-943 in muscle tissue. J Biol Chem. 2020.
Zoabi, M., Zhang, L., Li, T. M., Elias, J. E., Carlson, S. M., & Gozani, O. (2020). Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) methylates alanine tRNA synthetase at Lys-943 in muscle tissue. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014505
Zoabi M, et al. Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) Methylates Alanine tRNA Synthetase at Lys-943 in Muscle Tissue. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jul 1; PubMed PMID: 32611769.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Methyltransferase-like 21C (METTL21C) methylates alanine tRNA synthetase at Lys-943 in muscle tissue. AU - Zoabi,Muhammad, AU - Zhang,Lichao, AU - Li,Tie-Mei, AU - Elias,Josh E, AU - Carlson,Scott M, AU - Gozani,Or, Y1 - 2020/07/01/ PY - 2020/07/01/accepted PY - 2020/05/22/received PY - 2020/7/3/entrez KW - 70 kilodalton heat shock protein (Hsp70) KW - AARS1 KW - METTL21C KW - VCP KW - aminoacyl tRNA synthetase KW - lysine methylation KW - protein methylation KW - signal transduction KW - substrate specificity JF - The Journal of biological chemistry JO - J. Biol. Chem. N2 - Protein lysine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) throughout the human proteome that plays important roles in diverse biological processes. In humans, there are >100 known and candidate protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs), many of which are linked to human diseases. Methyltransferase-like protein 21C (METTL21C) is a PKMT implicated in muscle biology that has been reported to methylate valosin-containing protein/p97 (VCP) and heat shock 70kDa protein 8 (HSPA8). However, a clear in vitro methyltransferase activity for METTL21C remains yet to be demonstrated, and whether it is an active enzyme that directly methylates substrate/s in vivo is unclear. Here, we used an unbiased biochemistry-based screening assay coupled to MS, which identified alanine-tRNA-synthetase 1 (AARS1) as a direct substrate of METTL21C. We found that METTL21C catalyzes methylation of Lys-943 of AARS1 (AARS1-K943me) both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro METTL21C-mediated AARS1 methylation was independent of ATP or tRNA molecules. Unlike for AARS1, and in conflict with previous reports, we did not detect METTL21C methylation of VCP and HSPA8. AARS1-K943 methylation in HEK293T cells is dependent upon METTL21C levels. Finally, METTL2C was almost exclusively expressed in muscle tissue, and, accordingly, we detected METTL21C-catalyzed methylation of AARS1 in mouse skeletal muscle tissue. These results reveal that AARS1 is a bona fide in vitro substrate of METTL21C and suggest a role for the METTL21C-AARS1 axis in the regulation of protein synthesis in muscle tissue. Moreover, our study describes a straightforward protocol for elucidating the physiological substrates of poorly characterized or uncharacterized PKMTs. SN - 1083-351X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32611769/Methyltransferase-like_21C_(METTL21C)_methylates_alanine_tRNA_synthetase_at_Lys-943_in_muscle_tissue L2 - http://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=32611769 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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