Comparative proteomics of geographically distinct saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venoms from India.Toxicon X. 2020 Sep; 7:100048.TX
Snakebite is a socio-economic problem in tropical countries and it is exacerbated by geographical venom variation of snakes. We investigated on venom variation in geographically distinct populations of Echis carinatus from three ecologically distinct regions: Tamil Nadu (ECVTN), Goa (ECVGO), and Rajasthan (ECVRAJ). Venom was fractionated by RP-HPLC, combined with SDS-PAGE, and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. Toxins were identified, and their relative abundance was estimated. Using NCBI database of Echis genus, we queried the MS/MS spectra, and found 69, 38 and 38 proteins in ECVTN, ECVGO and ECVRAJ respectively, belonging to 8-10 different toxin families. The differences in the venom profiles were due to change in the relative composition of the toxin families. Snake venom metalloproteinase (svMP), Snaclecs and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were the major venom components in all the venoms. Heteromeric Disintegrins were found in ECVTN and absent in other venoms. ECVRAJ showed higher abundance of low-molecular-weight (>30 kDa) proteins than ECVTN and ECVGO. Cysteine-rich venom protein (CRISP) was highest in ECVRAJ (7.34%), followed by ECVTN (0.01%) and in ECVGO, it was not detected. These findings highlight the need for evaluating the efficacy of the polyvalent anti-venom to neutralize the toxins from geographically distinct venoms of E. carinatus.