Early and Intermediate-Term Outcome of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in Children With Aortic Stenosis and Left Ventricular Dysfunction at Tertiary Care Hospital.Cureus. 2020 May 27; 12(5):e8321.C
Background Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is seen in two scenarios: in neonates and in elderly patients. Neonatal AVS may present as a congestive cardiac failure (CCF), while older children rarely present with CCF if they have not been diagnosed early. Only a few reports of LV dysfunction with AVS have been described in the literature. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the safety and effectiveness of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) in children with AVS with LV dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes to establish the safety and effectiveness of BAV in children with AVS and LV dysfunction in improving LV function and survival. Methods A total of 160 BAVs were performed from 2004 to 2017; of these, 41 (25.6%) patients had LV dysfunction. We reviewed these cases, and data were obtained on clinical features, echocardiographic parameters including LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV dimensions, LV posterior wall, interventricular septal thickness, pressure gradient across the valve, aortic valve morphology and annulus and aortic insufficiency (AI), and angiographic parameters such as aortic and LV pressures, AI and annulus size, and balloon size. Echocardiography was done before the procedure, one day after intervention, at three months, at six months, and on regular follow-up. Mortality during and after the procedure and at follow-up was reported. Results Children who had undergone BAV for AVS and LV dysfunction within the age range of six to 192 months showed a significant reduction in peak-to-peak pressure gradient (PPG) from 73.5 ± 30 mmHg to 26.7 ± 6.7 mmHg and improvement in LVEF from 32.8 ± 11% to 54.3 ± 12.7% after 24 hours. Instantaneous gradient on echocardiography after three months showed PPG was 29.8 ± 7.7 mmHg and mean LVEF was 63 ± 8.6%. Mean LV end-diastolic pressure was 20.8 ± 4.7 mmHg and decreased to 13 ± 2.4 mmHg. Four patients died, all of whom had severe LV dysfunction - one died during the procedure and three died within six to 20 hours after successful BAV. On average follow-up of 6.4 ± 3.8 years, with a range of three months to 13 years, there was no mortality, pressure gradient increased to 40 ± 16.3 mmHg (range, 20 to 90 mmHg), and three had BAV after one, four, and six years, respectively. There was an increase in AI from mild to moderate in five patients, but they did not require any intervention. Four patients had aortic valve replacement (AVR) with two patients having an increase in pressure gradient and AI after eight and 13 years, respectively. One patient had AI (+3) after BAV had AVR after three years, and one patient who had a very thick and dysplastic aortic valve with LVEF of 20% and pulmonary hypertension (PH) had AVR after six months. Conclusion Patients with AVS who develop LV dysfunction deteriorate and die soon without treatment. Our data suggest that BAV in children with aortic stenosis and LV dysfunction is safe and effective in the normalization of LV function.