Modulation of inflammatory pathways, medicinal uses and toxicities of Uvaria species: potential role in the prevention and treatment of inflammation.Inflammopharmacology. 2020 Jul 02 [Online ahead of print]I
The therapeutic efficacy of the contemporary anti-inflammatory drugs are well established; however, prolonged use of such can often lead to serious and life-threatening side effects. Natural product-based anti-inflammatory compounds with superior efficacy and minimum toxicity can serve as possible therapeutic alternatives in this scenario. Genus Uvaria is a part of Annonaceae family, while the majority of its species are widely distributed in tropical rain forest regions of South East Asia. Uvaria species have been used extensively used as traditional medicine for treating all sorts of inflammatory diseases including catarrhal inflammation, rheumatism, acute allergic reactions, hemorrhoids, inflammatory liver disease and inflamed joints. Phytochemical analysis of Uvaria species has revealed flavones, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, polyoxygenated cyclohexene and phenolic compounds as major phyto-constituents. This review is an attempt to highlight the anti-inflammatory activity of Uvaria species by conducting a critical appraisal of the published literature. The ethnopharmacological relevance of Uvaria species in the light of toxicological studies is also discussed herein. An extensive and relevant literature on anti-inflammatory activity of Uvaria species was collected from available books, journals and electronic databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Proquest and Ovid. Extracts and isolates of Uvaria species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity through various mechanisms of action. 6,7-di-O-Methyl-baicalein, flexuvarol B, chrysin, (-)-zeylenol, 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-flavone, and pinocembrin were the most potent anti-inflammatory compounds with comparable IC50 with positive controls. Therefore, it is suggested that further research should be carried out to determine the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of these therapeutically significant compounds, to convert the pre-clinical results into clinical data for drug development and design.