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Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 06 [Online ahead of print]AJ

Abstract

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). We obtained vaccination history and dried blood spots, and measured antibody concentrations to VPDs on a multiplex bead assay. Among 1,146 children, national seropositivity was 83% (95% CI: 80-86%) for tetanus, 83% (95% CI: 81-85%) for diphtheria, 87% (95% CI: 85-89%) for measles, and 84% (95% CI: 81-87%) for rubella. None of the children had long-term immunity to tetanus or diphtheria (IgG concentration ≥ 1 international unit/mL). Seropositivity in the west region was lower than that in the non-west region. Vaccination coverage was 68% (95% CI: 61-74%) for ≥ 3 doses of tetanus- and diphtheria-containing vaccine (DTP3), 84% (95% CI: 80-87%) for one dose of measles-rubella (MR1) vaccine, and 20% (95% CI: 16-24%) for MR2. The seroprevalence of measles, rubella, and diphtheria antibodies is lower than population immunity levels needed to prevent disease transmission, particularly in the west region; reintroduction of these diseases could lead to an outbreak. To maintain VPD control and elimination, Haiti should achieve DTP3 and MR2 coverage ≥ 95%, and include tetanus and diphtheria booster doses in the routine immunization schedule.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Pan American Health Organization, Washington, District of Columbia.National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.Directorate of Epidemiology, Laboratory and Research, Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.Expanded Program on Immunization, Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.Institut Haitien de l'Enfance, Pétion-Ville, Haiti.Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32618256

Citation

Minta, Anna A., et al. "Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies Among Children in Haiti, 2017." The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020.
Minta AA, Andre-Alboth J, Childs L, et al. Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020.
Minta, A. A., Andre-Alboth, J., Childs, L., Nace, D., Rey-Benito, G., Boncy, J., Adrien, P., François, J., Phaïmyr Jn Charles, N., Blot, V., Vanden Eng, J., Priest, J. W., Rogier, E., & Tohme, R. A. (2020). Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112
Minta AA, et al. Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies Among Children in Haiti, 2017. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 6; PubMed PMID: 32618256.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017. AU - Minta,Anna A, AU - Andre-Alboth,Jocelyne, AU - Childs,Lana, AU - Nace,Doug, AU - Rey-Benito,Gloria, AU - Boncy,Jacques, AU - Adrien,Paul, AU - François,Jeannot, AU - Phaïmyr Jn Charles,Nadia, AU - Blot,Valery, AU - Vanden Eng,Jodi, AU - Priest,Jeffrey W, AU - Rogier,Eric, AU - Tohme,Rania A, Y1 - 2020/07/06/ PY - 2020/7/4/pubmed PY - 2020/7/4/medline PY - 2020/7/4/entrez JF - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene JO - Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. N2 - In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). We obtained vaccination history and dried blood spots, and measured antibody concentrations to VPDs on a multiplex bead assay. Among 1,146 children, national seropositivity was 83% (95% CI: 80-86%) for tetanus, 83% (95% CI: 81-85%) for diphtheria, 87% (95% CI: 85-89%) for measles, and 84% (95% CI: 81-87%) for rubella. None of the children had long-term immunity to tetanus or diphtheria (IgG concentration ≥ 1 international unit/mL). Seropositivity in the west region was lower than that in the non-west region. Vaccination coverage was 68% (95% CI: 61-74%) for ≥ 3 doses of tetanus- and diphtheria-containing vaccine (DTP3), 84% (95% CI: 80-87%) for one dose of measles-rubella (MR1) vaccine, and 20% (95% CI: 16-24%) for MR2. The seroprevalence of measles, rubella, and diphtheria antibodies is lower than population immunity levels needed to prevent disease transmission, particularly in the west region; reintroduction of these diseases could lead to an outbreak. To maintain VPD control and elimination, Haiti should achieve DTP3 and MR2 coverage ≥ 95%, and include tetanus and diphtheria booster doses in the routine immunization schedule. SN - 1476-1645 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32618256/Seroprevalence_of_Measles,_Rubella,_Tetanus,_and_Diphtheria_Antibodies_among_Children_in_Haiti,_2017 L2 - http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112?crawler=true&mimetype=application/pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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