Fecal microbial transplant for inflammatory bowel disease.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2020 Jun 28 [Online ahead of print]CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
The purpose of this brief review is to investigate the current utility of fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) to ameliorate dysbiosis contributing to inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis.
Increasing data from randomized, controlled trials support a role for multiple FMT administrations in the induction of remission and even as a maintenance therapy in mild-to-moderate Ulcerative Colitis. Small series and one small randomized controlled trial among patients with Crohn's Disease and with pouchitis continue to produce conflicting clinical results and microbial profile data on the host and donor levels. It is not clear whether patients with Crohn's disease are more susceptible to disease flare after FMT. Novel FMT delivery systems, including oral, and early-intensity colonoscopic devices, are under investigation.
The allure of minimizing the risks and cost of long-term immunosuppression via modulation of patient microbiota remains enticing, and the most recent randomized controlled data in ulcerative colitis reveals acceptable clinical remission rates. However, prior to wide adoption of FMT within the inflammatory bowel disease treatment armamentarium, large clinical trials identifying biomarkers of treatment success, ensuring safety across all indications, and cultivating optimized donor and host selection are needed.