Genetic structure and insecticide resistance characteristics of fall armyworm populations invading China.Mol Ecol Resour. 2020 Jul 03 [Online ahead of print]ME
The rapid wide-scale spread of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) has caused serious crop losses globally. However, differences in the genetic background of subpopulations and the mechanisms of rapid adaptation behind the invasion are still not well understood. Here we report the assembly of a 390.38Mb chromosome-level genome of fall armyworm derived from south-central Africa using Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Hi-C sequencing technologies, with scaffold N50 of 12.9 Mb and containing 22260 annotated protein-coding genes. Genome-wide resequencing of 103 samples and strain identification were conducted to reveal the genetic background of fall armyworm populations in China. Analysis of genes related to pesticide- and Bt-resistance showed that the risk of fall armyworm developing resistance to conventional pesticides is very high. Laboratory bioassay results showed that insects invading China carry resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, but are sensitive to genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab in field experiments. Additionally, two mitochondrial fragments were found to be inserted into the nuclear genome, with the insertion event occurring after the differentiation of the two strains. This study represents a valuable advance toward improving management strategies for fall armyworm.