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Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout.
Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020 Jun 30; 105:16-23.FS

Abstract

Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by the Gram negative enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri, affects farming of salmonids, but vaccination against ERM confers a certain degree of protection dependent on the administration route. Recent studies on oral vaccination of rainbow trout suggest that immunological tolerance may be induced by primary immunization using a low antigen dosage. We have examined if low dosages of Y. ruckeri antigens, applied in feed or bath exposure over a prolonged period of time, leave rainbow trout more susceptible to infection. Groups of rainbow trout were immunized, either by immersion or feeding using different vaccine dosages, and subsequently challenged by live Y. ruckeri. Survival was recorded and immune reactions in surviving fish were evaluated (ELISA and qPCR). Trout, bath-vaccinated in a highly diluted vaccine or fed the same amount of bacterin in feed over 10 days, were not protected against Y. ruckeri challenge infection and in some cases these sub-optimally immunized fish experienced lower survival compared to non-primed controls. Genes encoding FoxP3 and immune-suppressive cytokines were down-regulated in fish vaccinated with a high antigen dosage when compared to groups exposed to low antigen dosages, suggesting a higher regulatory T cell activity in the latter fish groups. The study suggests that repeated exposure to low antigen concentrations induces some degree of immune tolerance in rainbow trout and we recommend application of high antigen dosages for primary immunization of trout.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. Electronic address: mmarana@sund.ku.dk.Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32619627

Citation

Marana, M H., et al. "Primary Immunization Using Low Antigen Dosages and Immunological Tolerance in Rainbow Trout." Fish & Shellfish Immunology, vol. 105, 2020, pp. 16-23.
Marana MH, Chettri JK, Salten MB, et al. Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020;105:16-23.
Marana, M. H., Chettri, J. K., Salten, M. B., Bach-Olesen, N. E., Kania, P. W., Dalsgaard, I., & Buchmann, K. (2020). Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 105, 16-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.049
Marana MH, et al. Primary Immunization Using Low Antigen Dosages and Immunological Tolerance in Rainbow Trout. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020 Jun 30;105:16-23. PubMed PMID: 32619627.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout. AU - Marana,M H, AU - Chettri,J K, AU - Salten,M Brahe, AU - Bach-Olesen,N Emmervadt, AU - Kania,P W, AU - Dalsgaard,I, AU - Buchmann,K, Y1 - 2020/06/30/ PY - 2020/01/13/received PY - 2020/04/20/revised PY - 2020/06/23/accepted PY - 2020/7/4/pubmed PY - 2020/7/4/medline PY - 2020/7/4/entrez KW - Aquaculture KW - Immunological tolerance KW - Rainbow trout KW - Vaccination KW - Yersinia ruckeri SP - 16 EP - 23 JF - Fish & shellfish immunology JO - Fish Shellfish Immunol. VL - 105 N2 - Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by the Gram negative enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri, affects farming of salmonids, but vaccination against ERM confers a certain degree of protection dependent on the administration route. Recent studies on oral vaccination of rainbow trout suggest that immunological tolerance may be induced by primary immunization using a low antigen dosage. We have examined if low dosages of Y. ruckeri antigens, applied in feed or bath exposure over a prolonged period of time, leave rainbow trout more susceptible to infection. Groups of rainbow trout were immunized, either by immersion or feeding using different vaccine dosages, and subsequently challenged by live Y. ruckeri. Survival was recorded and immune reactions in surviving fish were evaluated (ELISA and qPCR). Trout, bath-vaccinated in a highly diluted vaccine or fed the same amount of bacterin in feed over 10 days, were not protected against Y. ruckeri challenge infection and in some cases these sub-optimally immunized fish experienced lower survival compared to non-primed controls. Genes encoding FoxP3 and immune-suppressive cytokines were down-regulated in fish vaccinated with a high antigen dosage when compared to groups exposed to low antigen dosages, suggesting a higher regulatory T cell activity in the latter fish groups. The study suggests that repeated exposure to low antigen concentrations induces some degree of immune tolerance in rainbow trout and we recommend application of high antigen dosages for primary immunization of trout. SN - 1095-9947 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32619627/Primary_immunization_using_low_antigen_dosages_and_immunological_tolerance_in_rainbow_trout L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1050-4648(20)30471-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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