Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Definitely saw it coming? The dual nature of the pre-nominal prediction effect.
Cognition. 2020 Jun 30; 204:104335.C

Abstract

In well-known demonstrations of lexical prediction during language comprehension, pre-nominal articles that mismatch a likely upcoming noun's gender elicit different neural activity than matching articles. However, theories differ on what this pre-nominal prediction effect means and on what is being predicted. Does it reflect mismatch with a predicted article, or 'merely' revision of the noun prediction? We contrasted the 'article prediction mismatch' hypothesis and the 'noun prediction revision' hypothesis in two ERP experiments on Dutch mini-story comprehension, with pre-registered data collection and analyses. We capitalized on the Dutch gender system, which marks gender on definite articles ('de/het') but not on indefinite articles ('een'). If articles themselves are predicted, mismatching gender should have little effect when readers expected an indefinite article without gender marking. Participants read contexts that strongly suggested either a definite or indefinite noun phrase as its best continuation, followed by a definite noun phrase with the expected noun or an unexpected, different gender noun phrase ('het boek/de roman', the book/the novel). Experiment 1 (N = 48) showed a pre-nominal prediction effect, but evidence for the article prediction mismatch hypothesis was inconclusive. Informed by exploratory analyses and power analyses, direct replication Experiment 2 (N = 80) yielded evidence for article prediction mismatch at a newly pre-registered occipital region-of-interest. However, at frontal and posterior channels, unexpectedly definite articles also elicited a gender-mismatch effect, and this support for the noun prediction revision hypothesis was further strengthened by exploratory analyses: ERPs elicited by gender-mismatching articles correlated with incurred constraint towards a new noun (next-word entropy), and N400s for initially unpredictable nouns decreased when articles made them more predictable. By demonstrating its dual nature, our results reconcile two prevalent explanations of the pre-nominal prediction effect.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, UK.Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address: mante.nieuwland@mpi.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32619896

Citation

Fleur, Damien S., et al. "Definitely Saw It Coming? the Dual Nature of the Pre-nominal Prediction Effect." Cognition, vol. 204, 2020, p. 104335.
Fleur DS, Flecken M, Rommers J, et al. Definitely saw it coming? The dual nature of the pre-nominal prediction effect. Cognition. 2020;204:104335.
Fleur, D. S., Flecken, M., Rommers, J., & Nieuwland, M. S. (2020). Definitely saw it coming? The dual nature of the pre-nominal prediction effect. Cognition, 204, 104335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104335
Fleur DS, et al. Definitely Saw It Coming? the Dual Nature of the Pre-nominal Prediction Effect. Cognition. 2020 Jun 30;204:104335. PubMed PMID: 32619896.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Definitely saw it coming? The dual nature of the pre-nominal prediction effect. AU - Fleur,Damien S, AU - Flecken,Monique, AU - Rommers,Joost, AU - Nieuwland,Mante S, Y1 - 2020/06/30/ PY - 2020/04/16/received PY - 2020/05/15/revised PY - 2020/05/22/accepted PY - 2020/7/4/pubmed PY - 2020/7/4/medline PY - 2020/7/4/entrez KW - Definiteness KW - Event-related potentials KW - Grammatical gender KW - N400 KW - Prediction SP - 104335 EP - 104335 JF - Cognition JO - Cognition VL - 204 N2 - In well-known demonstrations of lexical prediction during language comprehension, pre-nominal articles that mismatch a likely upcoming noun's gender elicit different neural activity than matching articles. However, theories differ on what this pre-nominal prediction effect means and on what is being predicted. Does it reflect mismatch with a predicted article, or 'merely' revision of the noun prediction? We contrasted the 'article prediction mismatch' hypothesis and the 'noun prediction revision' hypothesis in two ERP experiments on Dutch mini-story comprehension, with pre-registered data collection and analyses. We capitalized on the Dutch gender system, which marks gender on definite articles ('de/het') but not on indefinite articles ('een'). If articles themselves are predicted, mismatching gender should have little effect when readers expected an indefinite article without gender marking. Participants read contexts that strongly suggested either a definite or indefinite noun phrase as its best continuation, followed by a definite noun phrase with the expected noun or an unexpected, different gender noun phrase ('het boek/de roman', the book/the novel). Experiment 1 (N = 48) showed a pre-nominal prediction effect, but evidence for the article prediction mismatch hypothesis was inconclusive. Informed by exploratory analyses and power analyses, direct replication Experiment 2 (N = 80) yielded evidence for article prediction mismatch at a newly pre-registered occipital region-of-interest. However, at frontal and posterior channels, unexpectedly definite articles also elicited a gender-mismatch effect, and this support for the noun prediction revision hypothesis was further strengthened by exploratory analyses: ERPs elicited by gender-mismatching articles correlated with incurred constraint towards a new noun (next-word entropy), and N400s for initially unpredictable nouns decreased when articles made them more predictable. By demonstrating its dual nature, our results reconcile two prevalent explanations of the pre-nominal prediction effect. SN - 1873-7838 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32619896/Definitely_saw_it_coming_The_dual_nature_of_the_pre-nominal_prediction_effect L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010-0277(20)30154-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
Try the Free App:
Prime PubMed app for iOS iPhone iPad
Prime PubMed app for Android
Prime PubMed is provided
free to individuals by:
Unbound Medicine.