Moving away from traditional antibiotic treatment: can macrocyclic lactones from marine macroalga-associated heterotroph be the alternatives?Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Aug; 104(16):7117-7130.AM
Intertidal red algae Hypnea valentiae associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 revealed potential inhibitory effects on the growth of drug-resistant pathogens. In the genome of B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716, biosynthetic gene clusters encoding antibacterial metabolites were predicted, which might be expressed and contributed to the broad-spectrum anti-infective activity. Three homologue members of the 24-membered macrocyclic lactone family, named as bacvalactones 1-3 bearing 13-O-ethyl (1); 15-O-furanyl-13-O-isobutyl-7-O-propyl-propanoate (2); and 15-O-furanyl-13-O-isobutyl-7-O-propyl-propanoate-7,24-dimethyl (3) functionalities, were acquired through bioactivity-guided purification. The macrocyclic lactones displayed bactericidal activity against opportunistic pathogens causing nosocomial infections, for instance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs), and multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia with MIC ≤ 3.0 μg/mL, whereas standard antibiotics ampicillin and chloramphenicol were active only at concentrations of ≥ 6.25 mg/mL. The biosynthetic pathway of macrocyclic lactones that are generated by trans-AT polyketide synthases through stepwise extension of an acetyl starter unit by eleven sequential Claisen condensations with malonyl-CoA was established, and the structures were correlated with the gene organization of the mln operon, which encompasses nine genes mln A-I (approximately 47 kb in size). The best binding poses for each compounds (1-3) with Staphylococcus aureus peptide deformylase (SaPDF) unveiled docking scores (≥ 9.70 kcal/mol) greater than that of natural peptide deformylase inhibitors, macrolactin N and actinonin (9.14 and 6.96 kcal/mol, respectively), which supported their potential in vitro bioactivities. Thus, the present work demonstrated the potential of macrocyclic lactone for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications against emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens. Key Points •Three antibacterial bacvalactones were identified from the symbiotic bacterium. •The symbiotic bacterial genome was explored to identify the biosynthetic gene clusters. •Trans-AT pks-assisted mln biosynthetic pathway of the macrocyclic lactone was proposed. •In silicomolecular interactions of the bacvalactones with S. aureus PDF were analyzed.