The seventh nationwide surveillance of six otorhinolaryngological infectious diseases and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolated pathogens in Japan.J Infect Chemother. 2020 Sep; 26(9):890-899.JI
The Japanese Three Academic Societies Joint Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance Committee conducted a nationwide surveillance on six otorhinolaryngological diseases and investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and isolation rates of the causative pathogens. The surveillance program was conducted in the otorhinolaryngological departments of 12 universities, and 36 affiliated hospitals and clinics. Patients with acute otitis media (children under six years old), chronic otitis media, acute nasal sinusitis, chronic nasal sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess (over 20 years old) between December 2015 and June 2017 were investigated. The collected swab or incision samples were cultivated for microbial identification, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the detected bacteria was measured at the Kitasato University Research Center for Infections and Antimicrobials. The surveillance focused on three gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three anaerobic bacteria (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Fusobacterium spp.). Bacterial susceptibility to 40 antimicrobial agents was investigated. We were unable to completely mitigate the rise in the occurrence of resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, penicillin-intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase non-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, and beta-lactamase producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. We suggest promoting the proper usage of antimicrobial agents to prevent the spread of these bacteria. We also suggested that immunization with pneumococcal vaccines is useful for decreasing the occurrence of otorhinolaryngological infectious diseases caused by pneumococci.