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The effect of chloride, sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon on iron release from cast iron.
Water Res. 2020 Jun 16; 183:116037.WR

Abstract

Iron corrosion in drinking water distribution systems causes water discoloration, water quality deterioration, hydraulic loss, and even pipe failures, which are usually influenced by pipe scale structure, water hydraulics, water chemistry, and other factors. This work evaluated the effects of chloride, sulfate, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on iron release from a 90-year-old cast iron pipe section at water pH 8.0 under stagnant conditions. Experimental results showed that the addition of 150 mg/L sulfate to water significantly increased the mean total iron concentrations to 1.13-2.68 mg/L, relative to 0.54-0.79 mg/L for the baseline water with only 10 mg C/L DIC. Similar results were observed under conditions when chloride was added, and when sulfate and chloride were added together. In contrast, the mean total iron concentrations were significantly reduced by 53-80% in waters with higher DIC of 50 mg C/L, as compared to similar waters with lower DIC of 10 mg C/L. The Larson Ratio could be a good indicator for iron release depending on the circumstances. Iron release was predicted by molecular radial diffusion modelling that accounted for water quality, scale characteristics, hydraulics, and other condition-related information. The results provided insightful information for water systems that have cast iron pipes and galvanized iron pipes and that might encounter changes in water treatment and water sources. More studies are needed to better understand the cast iron corrosion mechanisms under the examined water chemistries.

Authors+Show Affiliations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, CESER, WID, DWMB, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr, Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA. Electronic address: lytle.darren@epa.gov.Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Postdoctoral Fellow at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr, Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA.School of Energy, Environmental, Biological & Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 601 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0012.School of Energy, Environmental, Biological & Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 601 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0012.School of Energy, Environmental, Biological & Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 601 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0012.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32629179

Citation

Lytle, Darren A., et al. "The Effect of Chloride, Sulfate and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon On Iron Release From Cast Iron." Water Research, vol. 183, 2020, p. 116037.
Lytle DA, Tang M, Francis AT, et al. The effect of chloride, sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon on iron release from cast iron. Water Res. 2020;183:116037.
Lytle, D. A., Tang, M., Francis, A. T., O'Donnell, A. J., & Newton, J. L. (2020). The effect of chloride, sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon on iron release from cast iron. Water Research, 183, 116037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116037
Lytle DA, et al. The Effect of Chloride, Sulfate and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon On Iron Release From Cast Iron. Water Res. 2020 Jun 16;183:116037. PubMed PMID: 32629179.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of chloride, sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon on iron release from cast iron. AU - Lytle,Darren A, AU - Tang,Min, AU - Francis,Andrew T, AU - O'Donnell,Alissa J, AU - Newton,James L, Y1 - 2020/06/16/ PY - 2020/03/20/received PY - 2020/05/22/revised PY - 2020/06/09/accepted PY - 2020/7/7/pubmed PY - 2020/7/7/medline PY - 2020/7/7/entrez KW - Chloride KW - Dissolved inorganic carbon KW - Iron corrosion KW - Molecular diffusion model KW - Sulfate KW - Water discoloration SP - 116037 EP - 116037 JF - Water research JO - Water Res. VL - 183 N2 - Iron corrosion in drinking water distribution systems causes water discoloration, water quality deterioration, hydraulic loss, and even pipe failures, which are usually influenced by pipe scale structure, water hydraulics, water chemistry, and other factors. This work evaluated the effects of chloride, sulfate, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on iron release from a 90-year-old cast iron pipe section at water pH 8.0 under stagnant conditions. Experimental results showed that the addition of 150 mg/L sulfate to water significantly increased the mean total iron concentrations to 1.13-2.68 mg/L, relative to 0.54-0.79 mg/L for the baseline water with only 10 mg C/L DIC. Similar results were observed under conditions when chloride was added, and when sulfate and chloride were added together. In contrast, the mean total iron concentrations were significantly reduced by 53-80% in waters with higher DIC of 50 mg C/L, as compared to similar waters with lower DIC of 10 mg C/L. The Larson Ratio could be a good indicator for iron release depending on the circumstances. Iron release was predicted by molecular radial diffusion modelling that accounted for water quality, scale characteristics, hydraulics, and other condition-related information. The results provided insightful information for water systems that have cast iron pipes and galvanized iron pipes and that might encounter changes in water treatment and water sources. More studies are needed to better understand the cast iron corrosion mechanisms under the examined water chemistries. SN - 1879-2448 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32629179/The_effect_of_chloride,_sulfate_and_dissolved_inorganic_carbon_on_iron_release_from_cast_iron L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0043-1354(20)30574-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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