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Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Aug; 41(4):480-495.SR

Abstract

In recent decades, there has been a growing interest about the role of gram negative bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The prevalence of these pathogens differs largely according to the local ecology and the geographical location. Identifying gram negative bacteria, and in particular resistant gram negative bacteria, is of paramount importance in patients with CAP because these pathogens are associated with higher clinical severity and unfavorable outcomes. The use of individualized risk factors to predict each pathogen is a helpful strategy that needs to be locally validated. However, it should be taken into account that most of the risk factors identified in the literature are heterogeneously defined or lack consistency. New diagnostic techniques, such as molecular testing, are promising methods for early detection of these gram negative pathogens. The increasing mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics of these pathogens have limited our therapeutic approach. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for the most relevant gram negative bacteria that cause CAP.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Unit and Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas. Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32629487

Citation

Amati, Francesco, and Marcos I. Restrepo. "Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia." Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 4, 2020, pp. 480-495.
Amati F, Restrepo MI. Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;41(4):480-495.
Amati, F., & Restrepo, M. I. (2020). Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 41(4), 480-495. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709137
Amati F, Restrepo MI. Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;41(4):480-495. PubMed PMID: 32629487.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emerging Resistance of Gram Negative Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. AU - Amati,Francesco, AU - Restrepo,Marcos I, Y1 - 2020/07/06/ PY - 2020/7/7/entrez PY - 2020/7/7/pubmed PY - 2020/7/7/medline SP - 480 EP - 495 JF - Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine JO - Semin Respir Crit Care Med VL - 41 IS - 4 N2 - In recent decades, there has been a growing interest about the role of gram negative bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The prevalence of these pathogens differs largely according to the local ecology and the geographical location. Identifying gram negative bacteria, and in particular resistant gram negative bacteria, is of paramount importance in patients with CAP because these pathogens are associated with higher clinical severity and unfavorable outcomes. The use of individualized risk factors to predict each pathogen is a helpful strategy that needs to be locally validated. However, it should be taken into account that most of the risk factors identified in the literature are heterogeneously defined or lack consistency. New diagnostic techniques, such as molecular testing, are promising methods for early detection of these gram negative pathogens. The increasing mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics of these pathogens have limited our therapeutic approach. This narrative review focuses on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for the most relevant gram negative bacteria that cause CAP. SN - 1098-9048 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32629487/Emerging_Resistance_of_Gram_Negative_Pathogens_in_Community-Acquired_Pneumonia L2 - http://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0040-1709137 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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