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Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: A Review.
Viruses. 2020 06 30; 12(7)V

Abstract

The need for proven disease-specific treatments for the novel pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 necessitates a worldwide search for therapeutic options. Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus shares extensive homology with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, effective therapies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV may also have therapeutic potential for the current COVID-19 outbreak. To identify therapeutics that might be repositioned for treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 disease COVID-19, we strategically reviewed the literature to identify existing therapeutics with evidence of efficacy for the treatment of the three coronaviruses that cause severe respiratory illness (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Mechanistic and in vitro analyses suggest multiple promising therapeutic options with potential for repurposing to treat patients with COVID-19. Therapeutics with particularly high potential efficacy for repurposing include camostat mesylate, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, convalescent plasma, and humanized monoclonal antibodies. Camostat mesylate has shown therapeutic potential, likely by preventing viral entry into epithelial cells. In early research, the targeted antivirals remdesivir and favipiravir appear to benefit patients by decreasing viral replication; clinical trials suggest that remdesivir speeds recovery from COVID-19. Tocilizumab and baricitinib appear to improve mortality by preventing a severe cytokine storm. Convalescent plasma and humanized monoclonal antibodies offer passive immunity and decreased recovery time. This review highlights potential therapeutic options that may be repurposed to treat COVID-19 and suggests opportunities for further research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.Department of Pharmacy, Prisma Health Upstate, Greenville, SC 29605, USA; Michael.Cohen@prismahealth.org .Department of Emergency Medicine Prisma Health Upstate, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.Department of Emergency Medicine Prisma Health Upstate, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32629804

Citation

Santos, Jennifer, et al. "Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: a Review." Viruses, vol. 12, no. 7, 2020.
Santos J, Brierley S, Gandhi MJ, et al. Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: A Review. Viruses. 2020;12(7).
Santos, J., Brierley, S., Gandhi, M. J., Cohen, M. A., Moschella, P. C., & Declan, A. B. L. (2020). Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: A Review. Viruses, 12(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070705
Santos J, et al. Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: a Review. Viruses. 2020 06 30;12(7) PubMed PMID: 32629804.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Repurposing Therapeutics for Potential Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: A Review. AU - Santos,Jennifer, AU - Brierley,Stephanie, AU - Gandhi,Mohit J, AU - Cohen,Michael A, AU - Moschella,Phillip C, AU - Declan,Arwen B L, Y1 - 2020/06/30/ PY - 2020/05/22/received PY - 2020/06/26/revised PY - 2020/06/27/accepted PY - 2020/7/8/entrez PY - 2020/7/8/pubmed PY - 2020/7/21/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - coronavirus KW - repositioning KW - repurposing KW - therapeutics KW - treatment JF - Viruses JO - Viruses VL - 12 IS - 7 N2 - The need for proven disease-specific treatments for the novel pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 necessitates a worldwide search for therapeutic options. Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus shares extensive homology with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, effective therapies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV may also have therapeutic potential for the current COVID-19 outbreak. To identify therapeutics that might be repositioned for treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 disease COVID-19, we strategically reviewed the literature to identify existing therapeutics with evidence of efficacy for the treatment of the three coronaviruses that cause severe respiratory illness (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Mechanistic and in vitro analyses suggest multiple promising therapeutic options with potential for repurposing to treat patients with COVID-19. Therapeutics with particularly high potential efficacy for repurposing include camostat mesylate, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, baricitinib, convalescent plasma, and humanized monoclonal antibodies. Camostat mesylate has shown therapeutic potential, likely by preventing viral entry into epithelial cells. In early research, the targeted antivirals remdesivir and favipiravir appear to benefit patients by decreasing viral replication; clinical trials suggest that remdesivir speeds recovery from COVID-19. Tocilizumab and baricitinib appear to improve mortality by preventing a severe cytokine storm. Convalescent plasma and humanized monoclonal antibodies offer passive immunity and decreased recovery time. This review highlights potential therapeutic options that may be repurposed to treat COVID-19 and suggests opportunities for further research. SN - 1999-4915 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32629804/Repurposing_Therapeutics_for_Potential_Treatment_of_SARS_CoV_2:_A_Review_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=v12070705 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -