Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on maternal and infant complications.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jul 06; 20(1):390.BP
The potential effects of pre-pregnancy body mass (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. Thus, we investigated socio-demographic characteristics that affect pre-pregnancy BMIs and GWG and the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG on Chinese maternal and infant complications.
3172 women were enrolled in the Chinese Pregnant Women Cohort Study-Peking Union Medical College from July 25, 2017 to July 24, 2018, whose babies were delivered before December 31, 2018. Regression analysis was employed to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics affecting pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG values and their effects on adverse maternal and infant complications.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age groups < 20 years (OR: 1.97), 25-30 years (OR: 1.66), 30-35 years (OR: 2.24), 35-40 years (OR: 3.90) and ≥ 40 years (OR: 3.33) as well as elementary school or education below (OR: 3.53), middle school (OR: 1.53), high school (OR: 1.40), and living in the north (OR: 1.37) were risk factors in maintaining a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. An age range of 30-35 years (OR: 0.76), living in the north (OR: 1.32) and race of ethnic minorities (OR: 1.51) were factors affecting GWG. Overweight (OR: 2.01) and inadequate GWG (OR: 1.60) were risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overweight (OR: 2.80) and obesity (OR: 5.42) were risk factors for gestational hypertension (GHp). Overweight (OR: 1.92), obesity (OR: 2.48) and excessive GWG (OR: 1.95) were risk factors for macrosomia. Overweight and excessive GWG were risk factors for a large gestational age (LGA) and inadequate GWG was a risk factor for low birth weights.
Overweight and obesity before pregnancy and an excessive GWG are associated with a greater risk of developing GDM, GHp, macrosomia and LGA. The control of body weight before and during the course of pregnancy is recommended to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in pregnant women aged < 20 or > 25 years old educated below university and college levels, for ethnic minorities and those women who live in the north of China.
Registered at Clinical Trials (NCT03403543), September 29, 2017.