[Clinical and epidemiological features in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder].J Fr Ophtalmol. 2020 Jul 03 [Online ahead of print]JF
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO-SD) has been recognized for the past decade. Biomarkers such as anti-Aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4) and anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) have been able to classify NMO-SD into several groups.
A retrospective study was performed in the Strasbourg University Medical Center among patients with AQP4+, MOG+ and double-seronegative NMO to compare their clinical, epidemiological and paraclinical features.
Thirty-two patients with NMO were included. The AQP4+ NMO patients had a median of age of 45 years, with associated myelitis in 62.5% of cases and other autoantibodies in 37.5% of cases. The mean number of relapses by clinical history was 3. The mean initial visual acuity during an exacerbation was 0.3 LogMAR, and the visual acuity after an exacerbation was 0.1 LogMAR. MOG+NMO patients had a median age of 23 years, with severely impaired initial visual acuity (0.6 LogMAR) but better recovery (0 LogMAR); optic disc edema was present in 80% of cases; the mean number of relapses on clinical history was 1. AQP4-/MOG- NMO's were more common in women (70%) and were bilateral in 40% of cases.
The diagnostic characteristics of NMO-SD are becoming increasingly differentiated, with a positive impact on functional prognosis and long-term progression. Other biomarkers have yet to be identified to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.