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Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Nov; 39(11):2005-2011.EJ

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, has caused a public health emergency. The need for additional research in viral pathogenesis is essential as the number of cases and deaths rise. Understanding the virus and its ability to cause disease has been the main focus of current literature; however, there is much unknown. Studies have revealed new findings related to the full transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its subsequent ability to cause infection by different means. The virus is hypothesized to be of increased virulence compared with previous coronavirus that caused epidemics, in part due to its overall structural integrity and resilience to inactivation. To date, many studies have discussed that the rationale behind its transmission potential is that viral RNA has unexpectedly been detected in multiple bodily fluids, with some samples having remained positive for extended periods of time. Additionally, the receptor by which the virus gains cellular entry, ACE2, has been found to be expressed in different human body systems, thereby potentiating its infection in those locations. In this evidence-based comprehensive review, we discuss various potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2-respiratory/droplet, indirect, fecal-oral, vertical, sexual, and ocular. Understanding these different routes is important as they pertain to clinical practice, especially in taking preventative measures to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.Nova Southeastern University Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.Department of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.Department of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA. rvunnam@pennstatehealth.psu.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32638221

Citation

Patel, Kishan P., et al. "Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an Update of Current Literature." European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 11, 2020, pp. 2005-2011.
Patel KP, Vunnam SR, Patel PA, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;39(11):2005-2011.
Patel, K. P., Vunnam, S. R., Patel, P. A., Krill, K. L., Korbitz, P. M., Gallagher, J. P., Suh, J. E., & Vunnam, R. R. (2020). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, 39(11), 2005-2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03961-1
Patel KP, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an Update of Current Literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;39(11):2005-2011. PubMed PMID: 32638221.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature. AU - Patel,Kishan P, AU - Vunnam,Srinivas R, AU - Patel,Puja A, AU - Krill,Kaleigh L, AU - Korbitz,Parker M, AU - Gallagher,John P, AU - Suh,Jane E, AU - Vunnam,Rama R, Y1 - 2020/07/07/ PY - 2020/05/09/received PY - 2020/06/19/accepted PY - 2020/7/9/pubmed PY - 2020/10/24/medline PY - 2020/7/9/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Modes KW - RNA KW - Routes KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Transmission SP - 2005 EP - 2011 JF - European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology JO - Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis VL - 39 IS - 11 N2 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, has caused a public health emergency. The need for additional research in viral pathogenesis is essential as the number of cases and deaths rise. Understanding the virus and its ability to cause disease has been the main focus of current literature; however, there is much unknown. Studies have revealed new findings related to the full transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its subsequent ability to cause infection by different means. The virus is hypothesized to be of increased virulence compared with previous coronavirus that caused epidemics, in part due to its overall structural integrity and resilience to inactivation. To date, many studies have discussed that the rationale behind its transmission potential is that viral RNA has unexpectedly been detected in multiple bodily fluids, with some samples having remained positive for extended periods of time. Additionally, the receptor by which the virus gains cellular entry, ACE2, has been found to be expressed in different human body systems, thereby potentiating its infection in those locations. In this evidence-based comprehensive review, we discuss various potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2-respiratory/droplet, indirect, fecal-oral, vertical, sexual, and ocular. Understanding these different routes is important as they pertain to clinical practice, especially in taking preventative measures to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. SN - 1435-4373 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32638221/Transmission_of_SARS_CoV_2:_an_update_of_current_literature_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -