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Genetics of somatotype and physical fitness in children and adolescents.
Am J Hum Biol. 2020 Jul 07 [Online ahead of print]AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To analyze the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in somatotype, physical fitness, and their mutual associations.

METHODS

Twins from 214 pairs (87 monozygotic) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, from 3 to 18 years of age (51% girls) were assessed in anthropometry and physical fitness tests. We estimated endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy based on anthropometric measures and physical fitness using the Eurofit test battery. Two age categories were analyzed: children (3-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Genetic and environmental variations were estimated using quantitative genetic twin modeling.

RESULTS

No genetic sex differences were found, thus boys and girls were pooled in all genetic analyses. Heritability estimates were high for somatotype (a2 = 0.80-0.93), physical fitness traits (a2 = 0.67-0.83), and largely similar in children and adolescents. Positive correlations were found for ectomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with muscular strength (r = 0.25-0.37). In contrast, negative associations were found for ectomorphy with muscular strength, as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance (-0.46 to -0.26). Twin modeling indicated that these associations were explained mostly by genetic factors in common to the two associated traits (84% or more).

CONCLUSIONS

Associations between somatotype and physical fitness tests are mainly explained by common genetic background in children and adolescents. Therefore, interventions in youth should consider that a child's performance in physical fitness tests partly reflects their inherited physique.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao, Spain.Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal. Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. LARSYS, Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Portugal.Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal.Physical Activity, Sports & Health Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.Physical Activity, Sports & Health Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal. Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32638469

Citation

Silventoinen, Karri, et al. "Genetics of Somatotype and Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents." American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council, 2020, pp. e23470.
Silventoinen K, Maia J, Jelenkovic A, et al. Genetics of somatotype and physical fitness in children and adolescents. Am J Hum Biol. 2020.
Silventoinen, K., Maia, J., Jelenkovic, A., Pereira, S., Gouveia, É., Antunes, A., Thomis, M., Lefevre, J., Kaprio, J., & Freitas, D. (2020). Genetics of somatotype and physical fitness in children and adolescents. American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council, e23470. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23470
Silventoinen K, et al. Genetics of Somatotype and Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents. Am J Hum Biol. 2020 Jul 7;e23470. PubMed PMID: 32638469.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Genetics of somatotype and physical fitness in children and adolescents. AU - Silventoinen,Karri, AU - Maia,José, AU - Jelenkovic,Aline, AU - Pereira,Sara, AU - Gouveia,Élvio, AU - Antunes,António, AU - Thomis,Martine, AU - Lefevre,Johan, AU - Kaprio,Jaakko, AU - Freitas,Duarte, Y1 - 2020/07/07/ PY - 2020/03/24/received PY - 2020/05/28/revised PY - 2020/06/24/accepted PY - 2020/7/9/entrez SP - e23470 EP - e23470 JF - American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council JO - Am. J. Hum. Biol. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in somatotype, physical fitness, and their mutual associations. METHODS: Twins from 214 pairs (87 monozygotic) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, from 3 to 18 years of age (51% girls) were assessed in anthropometry and physical fitness tests. We estimated endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy based on anthropometric measures and physical fitness using the Eurofit test battery. Two age categories were analyzed: children (3-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Genetic and environmental variations were estimated using quantitative genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: No genetic sex differences were found, thus boys and girls were pooled in all genetic analyses. Heritability estimates were high for somatotype (a2 = 0.80-0.93), physical fitness traits (a2 = 0.67-0.83), and largely similar in children and adolescents. Positive correlations were found for ectomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with muscular strength (r = 0.25-0.37). In contrast, negative associations were found for ectomorphy with muscular strength, as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance (-0.46 to -0.26). Twin modeling indicated that these associations were explained mostly by genetic factors in common to the two associated traits (84% or more). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between somatotype and physical fitness tests are mainly explained by common genetic background in children and adolescents. Therefore, interventions in youth should consider that a child's performance in physical fitness tests partly reflects their inherited physique. SN - 1520-6300 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32638469/Genetics_of_somatotype_and_physical_fitness_in_children_and_adolescents L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23470 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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