Clinical features and genetic characteristics of homozygous spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2020 Jul 09 [Online ahead of print]MG
Homozygous spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) patients, which have an expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat mutation in both alleles of ATXN3, are extremely rare. Clinical features and genetic characteristics of them were seldom studied.
We analyzed seven newly homozygous SCA3 patients from five families and 14 homozygotes reported previously. An additional cohort of 30 heterozygous SCA3 patients were analyzed to compare age at onset (AAO).
Two out of seven SCA3 homozygotes had the minimum CAG repeats reported so far (55/56 and 56/58). Five patients appeared peripheral neuropathy and two had mild cognitive impairment. The AAO was significantly inversely correlated with both the large and small expanded CAG repeats (r = -.7682, p < .0001). The AAO was significantly earlier in homozygous SCA3 than heterozygous ones (32.81 ± 11.86 versus. 49.90 ± 9.73, p < .0001). In addition, the AAO of our seven homozygotes is elder compared to those reported previously (41.29 years vs. 28.57 years), which may be related to the fewer CAG repeats in our seven patients.
Gene dosage effect may play an important role in the AAO and severity of disease, and homozygosity for ATXN3 enhances phenotypic severity. Our findings expand clinical features and genetic characteristics of homozygous SCA3 patients.