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Extreme subsidence in a populated city (Mashhad) detected by PSInSAR considering groundwater withdrawal and geotechnical properties.
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 09; 10(1):11357.SR

Abstract

Ground deformation can cause serious environmental issues such as infrastructure damage, ground compaction, and reducing the ground capacity to store water. Mashhad, as one of the largest and most populated cities in the Middle East, has been suffering from extreme subsidence. In the last decade, some researchers have been interested in measuring land subsidence rates in the Mashhad valley by InSAR techniques. However, most of those studies were based on inaccurate measurements introducing uncertainties in the resulting subsidence rates. These researches used a small number of EnviSat data with long perpendicular and inhomogeneous temporal baseline. This paper seeks to determine the subsidence rate in urban areas of Mashhad in recent years, the threat that was neglected by the city managers and decision-makers. For this purpose, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR technique was applied in the study area using two time-series of descending and ascending Sentinel-1A acquisitions between 2014 and 2017. The results demonstrated the maximum line-of-sight deformation rate of 14.6 cm/year and maximum vertical deformation (subsidence) rate about 19.1 cm/year which could have irreversible consequences. The results were assessed and validated using piezometric data, GPS stations, and geotechnical properties. This assessment confirms that the main reason for subsidence in the interested area is groundwater over-extraction. Also, investigation of geotechnical properties shows that thick fine-grained layers in the northwest of the city could strongly affect the results. At the end of this paper, a new simplified method was proposed to estimate specific storage in special cases to predict the subsidence rate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. s.abrishami@um.ac.ir.Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas At Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019, USA.RASER Limited, Hong Kong, P. R. China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32647281

Citation

Khorrami, Mohammad, et al. "Extreme Subsidence in a Populated City (Mashhad) Detected By PSInSAR Considering Groundwater Withdrawal and Geotechnical Properties." Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020, p. 11357.
Khorrami M, Abrishami S, Maghsoudi Y, et al. Extreme subsidence in a populated city (Mashhad) detected by PSInSAR considering groundwater withdrawal and geotechnical properties. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):11357.
Khorrami, M., Abrishami, S., Maghsoudi, Y., Alizadeh, B., & Perissin, D. (2020). Extreme subsidence in a populated city (Mashhad) detected by PSInSAR considering groundwater withdrawal and geotechnical properties. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11357. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67989-1
Khorrami M, et al. Extreme Subsidence in a Populated City (Mashhad) Detected By PSInSAR Considering Groundwater Withdrawal and Geotechnical Properties. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11357. PubMed PMID: 32647281.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extreme subsidence in a populated city (Mashhad) detected by PSInSAR considering groundwater withdrawal and geotechnical properties. AU - Khorrami,Mohammad, AU - Abrishami,Saeed, AU - Maghsoudi,Yasser, AU - Alizadeh,Babak, AU - Perissin,Daniele, Y1 - 2020/07/09/ PY - 2019/06/18/received PY - 2020/06/16/accepted PY - 2020/7/11/entrez PY - 2020/7/11/pubmed PY - 2020/7/11/medline SP - 11357 EP - 11357 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - Ground deformation can cause serious environmental issues such as infrastructure damage, ground compaction, and reducing the ground capacity to store water. Mashhad, as one of the largest and most populated cities in the Middle East, has been suffering from extreme subsidence. In the last decade, some researchers have been interested in measuring land subsidence rates in the Mashhad valley by InSAR techniques. However, most of those studies were based on inaccurate measurements introducing uncertainties in the resulting subsidence rates. These researches used a small number of EnviSat data with long perpendicular and inhomogeneous temporal baseline. This paper seeks to determine the subsidence rate in urban areas of Mashhad in recent years, the threat that was neglected by the city managers and decision-makers. For this purpose, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR technique was applied in the study area using two time-series of descending and ascending Sentinel-1A acquisitions between 2014 and 2017. The results demonstrated the maximum line-of-sight deformation rate of 14.6 cm/year and maximum vertical deformation (subsidence) rate about 19.1 cm/year which could have irreversible consequences. The results were assessed and validated using piezometric data, GPS stations, and geotechnical properties. This assessment confirms that the main reason for subsidence in the interested area is groundwater over-extraction. Also, investigation of geotechnical properties shows that thick fine-grained layers in the northwest of the city could strongly affect the results. At the end of this paper, a new simplified method was proposed to estimate specific storage in special cases to predict the subsidence rate. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32647281/Extreme_subsidence_in_a_populated_city_(Mashhad)_detected_by_PSInSAR_considering_groundwater_withdrawal_and_geotechnical_properties L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67989-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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