Effects of pterostigma structure on vibrational characteristics during flight of Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 09; 10(1):11371.SR
The hind wings of beetles are deployable and play an essential role in flight. In the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the pterostigma (pst) is found in the middle of the hind wing instead of at the tip of the hind wing. This paper investigates the effect of the pst on the vibrational characteristics during the flight of H. axyridis. Based on cross sections of the pst and veins as well as the morphology and nanomechanical properties of the hind wing, including the wing membrane and veins, three three-dimensional coupling models, Models I-III, of hind wings with/without pst structures and veins with varying or uniform reduced moduli are established. Modal analysis results for these three models show that the vibrational characteristics and deformation tendencies change the flight performance of the hind wing models with pst structures compared with that of the other models. The results in this paper reveal that the pst structure has an important influence on vibrational characteristics and deformation tendencies and, hence, on flight performance; the relationships between the body mass and the area of the hind wing, which have significant implications for the design of biomimetic deployable wing structures for micro air vehicles (MAVs), are also analyzed.