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Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance with Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 07 08; 17(14)IJ

Abstract

Effective management of the global pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (also known as COVID-19), resulted in the implementation of severe restrictions in movement and enforcement of social distancing measures. This study aimed to understand and characterize the psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population and to identify risks and protective factors that predict changes in mental health status. In addition, the study investigated compliance with precautionary measures (PM) to halt the spread of the virus. The online anonymous survey collected information on sociodemographic data, compliance with PM, quality of life (QOL), and mental health via the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). A total of 1642 adult participants (71.6% women, 28.4% men) completed the survey in the European island country, Cyprus. A large percentage (48%) reported significant financial concerns and 66.7% significant changes in their QOL. About 41% reported symptoms associated with mild anxiety; 23.1% reported moderate-severe anxiety symptoms. Concerning depression, 48% reported mild and 9.2% moderate-severe depression symptoms. Women, younger age (18-29), student status, unemployment status, prior psychiatric history, and those reporting greater negative impact on their QOL, were at higher risk for increased anxiety and depression symptoms (p < 0.05). The youngest age group and males also reported lower levels of compliance with PM. Higher compliance with PM predicted lower depression scores (p < 0.001) but higher anxiety for measures related to personal hygiene. The results of this study provide important data on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and QOL and identify a variety of personal and social determinants that serve as risks and protective factors. Furthermore, it has implications for policy makers demonstrating the need for effective mental health programs and guidance for the implementation of PM as a public health strategy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Applied Neuroscience, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus. Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 2109, Cyprus.Center for Applied Neuroscience, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus. Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 2109, Cyprus.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32650522

Citation

Solomou, Ioulia, and Fofi Constantinidou. "Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance With Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 14, 2020.
Solomou I, Constantinidou F. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance with Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(14).
Solomou, I., & Constantinidou, F. (2020). Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance with Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144924
Solomou I, Constantinidou F. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance With Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 07 8;17(14) PubMed PMID: 32650522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Compliance with Precautionary Measures: Age and Sex Matter. AU - Solomou,Ioulia, AU - Constantinidou,Fofi, Y1 - 2020/07/08/ PY - 2020/06/13/received PY - 2020/07/02/revised PY - 2020/07/03/accepted PY - 2020/7/12/entrez PY - 2020/7/12/pubmed PY - 2020/7/18/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - anxiety KW - depression KW - precautionary measures KW - psychological effects KW - quality of life JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 17 IS - 14 N2 - Effective management of the global pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (also known as COVID-19), resulted in the implementation of severe restrictions in movement and enforcement of social distancing measures. This study aimed to understand and characterize the psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population and to identify risks and protective factors that predict changes in mental health status. In addition, the study investigated compliance with precautionary measures (PM) to halt the spread of the virus. The online anonymous survey collected information on sociodemographic data, compliance with PM, quality of life (QOL), and mental health via the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). A total of 1642 adult participants (71.6% women, 28.4% men) completed the survey in the European island country, Cyprus. A large percentage (48%) reported significant financial concerns and 66.7% significant changes in their QOL. About 41% reported symptoms associated with mild anxiety; 23.1% reported moderate-severe anxiety symptoms. Concerning depression, 48% reported mild and 9.2% moderate-severe depression symptoms. Women, younger age (18-29), student status, unemployment status, prior psychiatric history, and those reporting greater negative impact on their QOL, were at higher risk for increased anxiety and depression symptoms (p < 0.05). The youngest age group and males also reported lower levels of compliance with PM. Higher compliance with PM predicted lower depression scores (p < 0.001) but higher anxiety for measures related to personal hygiene. The results of this study provide important data on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and QOL and identify a variety of personal and social determinants that serve as risks and protective factors. Furthermore, it has implications for policy makers demonstrating the need for effective mental health programs and guidance for the implementation of PM as a public health strategy. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32650522/Prevalence_and_Predictors_of_Anxiety_and_Depression_Symptoms_during_the_COVID_19_Pandemic_and_Compliance_with_Precautionary_Measures:_Age_and_Sex_Matter_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph17144924 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -