Distinct Microbiota Dysbiosis in Patients with Non-Erosive Reflux Disease and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.J Clin Med. 2020 Jul 08; 9(7)JC
Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are often regarded as bookends in the gastroesophageal reflux disease spectrum. However, there is limited clinical evidence to support this disease paradigm while the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unclear. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing and mass-spectrometer-based proteomics to characterize the esophageal microbiota and host mucosa proteome, respectively. A total of 70 participants from four patient groups (NERD, reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and EAC) and a control group were analyzed. Our results showed a unique NERD microbiota composition, distinct to control and other groups. We speculate that an increase in sulfate-reducing Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes along with hydrogen producer Dorea are associated with a mechanistic role in visceral hypersensitivity. We also observed a distinct EAC microbiota consisting of a high abundance of lactic acid-producing bacteria (Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus), which may contribute towards carcinogenesis through dysregulated lactate metabolism. This study suggests the close relationship between esophageal mucosal microbiota and the appearance of pathologies of this organ.