The Relationship between Protein Intake and Source on Factors Associated with Glycemic Control in Individuals with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.Nutrients. 2020 Jul 08; 12(7)N
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality largely due to increased cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined the relationships among protein consumption and sources on glycemic control and cardiovascular health in individuals with prediabetes and T2D. Sixty-two overweight or obese participants with prediabetes or T2D, aged 45-75 years were stratified into the following three groups based on protein intake: <0.8 g (gram)/kg (kilogram) body weight (bw), ≥0.8 but <1.0 g/kg bw, and ≥1.0 g/kg bw as below, meeting, and above the recommended levels of protein intake, respectively. Body mass, body mass index (BMI), hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), lean mass, and fat mass (FM) were significantly higher in participants who consumed below the recommended level of protein intake as compared with other groups. Higher animal protein intake was associated with greater insulin secretion and lower triglycerides (TG). Total, low-density, and high-density cholesterol were significantly higher in participants who met the recommended protein intake as compared with the other groups. These data suggest that high protein consumption is associated with lower BMI, HC, WC, and FM, and can improve insulin resistance without affecting lipid profiles in this population. Furthermore, higher intake of animal protein can improve β-cell function and lower plasma TG.