Overexpressed coiled-coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8) mediates newly synthesized HIV-1 Gag lysosomal degradation.Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 10; 10(1):11416.SR
Normally, HIV-1 enters into CD4+ cells through membrane fusion, and newly synthesized HIV-1 viral proteins assemble on the plasma membrane to form viral particles and bud out. In the previous study, we found host factor coiled-coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8) can strongly inhibit HIV-1 production, but the underline mechanism is not clear. Here we show that overexpression of CCDC8 reverses the normal HIV-1 production process, and causes newly assembled HIV-1 Gag particles to be endocytosed on the plasma membrane, rather than budding out. Live-cell imaging system captured the moment of CCDC8-mediated Gag internalization on the plasma membrane, and the speed of Gag turnover is up to 1.53 μm/s, much faster than Gag assembly on the plasma membrane. After Gag internalization, it accumulates in the cellular organelle-lysosome for degradation, but not proteasome, autophagosome, endoplasmic reticulum, clathrin or recycling endosome. In addition, CCDC8 is a membrane-associated protein, and N-terminal of CCDC8 is very important for membrane binding, and also important for inhibition of Gag assembly. C-terminal deletion of CCDC8 has a little effect on anti-HIV-1 effect. Moreover, CCDC8 is phosphorylated at amino acid threonine T87 and serine S261, and mono-methylated at lysine K491. Alanine mutations of T87A, S261A and K491A singly or in combination do not affect CCDC8 anti-HIV activity. In conclusion, overexpression of CCDC8 can cause newly assembled HIV-1 Gag particles on the plasma membrane to be endocytosed and degraded in lysosome.