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Dry heat and microwave-generated steam protocols for the rapid decontamination of respiratory personal protective equipment in response to COVID-19-related shortages.
J Hosp Infect. 2020 Sep; 106(1):10-19.JH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and unprecedented global demand, clinicians are struggling to source adequate access to personal protective equipment. Respirators can be in short supply, though are necessary to protect workers from SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Rapid decontamination and reuse of respirators may provide relief for the strained procurement situation.

METHOD

In this study, we investigated the suitability of 70°C dry heat and microwave-generated steam (MGS) for reprocessing of FFP2/N95-type respirators, and Type-II surgical face masks. Staphylococcus aureus was used as a surrogate as it is less susceptible than enveloped viruses to chemical and physical processes.

RESULTS

We observed >4 log10 reductions in the viability of dry S. aureus treated by dry heat for 90 min at 70°C and >6 log10 reductions by MGS for 90 s. After 3 reprocessing cycles, neither process was found to negatively impact the bacterial or NaCl filtration efficiency of the respirators that were tested. However, MGS was incompatible with Type-II surgical masks tested, as we confirmed that bacterial filtration capacity was completely lost following reprocessing. MGS was observed to be incompatible with some respirator types due to arcing observed around some types of metal nose clips and by loss of adhesion of clips to the mask.

CONCLUSION

Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, we propose a reprocessing personal protective equipment/face mask workflow for use in medical areas.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK; Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.Cardiff School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK. Electronic address: MaillardJ@cardiff.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32652212

Citation

Pascoe, M J., et al. "Dry Heat and Microwave-generated Steam Protocols for the Rapid Decontamination of Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment in Response to COVID-19-related Shortages." The Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 106, no. 1, 2020, pp. 10-19.
Pascoe MJ, Robertson A, Crayford A, et al. Dry heat and microwave-generated steam protocols for the rapid decontamination of respiratory personal protective equipment in response to COVID-19-related shortages. J Hosp Infect. 2020;106(1):10-19.
Pascoe, M. J., Robertson, A., Crayford, A., Durand, E., Steer, J., Castelli, A., Wesgate, R., Evans, S. L., Porch, A., & Maillard, J. Y. (2020). Dry heat and microwave-generated steam protocols for the rapid decontamination of respiratory personal protective equipment in response to COVID-19-related shortages. The Journal of Hospital Infection, 106(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.07.008
Pascoe MJ, et al. Dry Heat and Microwave-generated Steam Protocols for the Rapid Decontamination of Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment in Response to COVID-19-related Shortages. J Hosp Infect. 2020;106(1):10-19. PubMed PMID: 32652212.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dry heat and microwave-generated steam protocols for the rapid decontamination of respiratory personal protective equipment in response to COVID-19-related shortages. AU - Pascoe,M J, AU - Robertson,A, AU - Crayford,A, AU - Durand,E, AU - Steer,J, AU - Castelli,A, AU - Wesgate,R, AU - Evans,S L, AU - Porch,A, AU - Maillard,J-Y, Y1 - 2020/07/09/ PY - 2020/05/04/received PY - 2020/07/06/accepted PY - 2020/7/12/pubmed PY - 2020/9/4/medline PY - 2020/7/12/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Dry heat KW - Face masks KW - Microwave KW - PPE KW - Reprocessing SP - 10 EP - 19 JF - The Journal of hospital infection JO - J Hosp Infect VL - 106 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and unprecedented global demand, clinicians are struggling to source adequate access to personal protective equipment. Respirators can be in short supply, though are necessary to protect workers from SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Rapid decontamination and reuse of respirators may provide relief for the strained procurement situation. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the suitability of 70°C dry heat and microwave-generated steam (MGS) for reprocessing of FFP2/N95-type respirators, and Type-II surgical face masks. Staphylococcus aureus was used as a surrogate as it is less susceptible than enveloped viruses to chemical and physical processes. RESULTS: We observed >4 log10 reductions in the viability of dry S. aureus treated by dry heat for 90 min at 70°C and >6 log10 reductions by MGS for 90 s. After 3 reprocessing cycles, neither process was found to negatively impact the bacterial or NaCl filtration efficiency of the respirators that were tested. However, MGS was incompatible with Type-II surgical masks tested, as we confirmed that bacterial filtration capacity was completely lost following reprocessing. MGS was observed to be incompatible with some respirator types due to arcing observed around some types of metal nose clips and by loss of adhesion of clips to the mask. CONCLUSION: Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, we propose a reprocessing personal protective equipment/face mask workflow for use in medical areas. SN - 1532-2939 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32652212/Dry_heat_and_microwave_generated_steam_protocols_for_the_rapid_decontamination_of_respiratory_personal_protective_equipment_in_response_to_COVID_19_related_shortages_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195-6701(20)30338-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -