Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: clinical characteristics, therapeutic considerations, and prognostic factors in a Spanish paediatric cohort.Neurologia. 2020 Jul 08 [Online ahead of print]N
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome is a rare neuroinflammatory disorder with onset during childhood; aetiology may be paraneoplastic, para-infectious, or idiopathic. No biomarkers have yet been identified, and diagnosis is clinical. Better cognitive prognosis appears to be related to early onset of immunomodulatory therapy.
We describe the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and long-term prognostic characteristics of a cohort of 20 Spanish patients.
The mean age of onset was 21 months (range, 2-59). Ataxia and opsoclonus were the most frequent symptoms both at disease onset and throughout disease progression. The mean time from onset to diagnosis was 1.1 months. Neuroblast lineage tumours were detected in 45% of patients; these were treated with surgical resection in 7 cases and chemotherapy in 2. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis in 4 cases (25%) and neither antineuronal antibodies nor oligoclonal bands were detected in any patient. Immunomodulatory drugs were used in all cases. Nine patients started combined immunomodulatory treatment at the time of diagnosis, and 5 patients after a mean of 2.2 months. In the long term, 6 of the 10 patients followed up for more than 5 years presented mild or moderate cognitive sequelae. Four patients presented relapses, generally coinciding with the decrease of corticosteroid doses.
Early initiation of immunotherapy, as well as triple combination therapy, where needed, was associated with a lower frequency of cognitive impairment 2 years after onset.