Successful kidney transplantation in a patient with pre-existing chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib.Am J Transplant. 2020 Jul 12 [Online ahead of print]AJ
Active malignancy is an absolute contraindication to kidney transplantation. As for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a Philadelphia chromosome-positive myeloproliferative neoplasm, the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has transformed CML from a lethal into a manageable chronic disease with a close-to-normal life expectancy. To date it is unknown whether kidney transplantation can be safely performed in patients with pre-existing CML. We describe the clinical course of a 57-year-old male patient with chronic kidney disease caused by reflux nephropathy. This patient had undergone first kidney transplantation 20 years earlier and had again been on chronic hemodialysis for 6 years when CML was diagnosed. First-line therapy with 400 mg imatinib daily was well tolerated and induced an optimal cytogenetic and molecular response 3 months after initiation. One and a half years after CML diagnosis, a second kidney transplantation from a deceased donor was performed. Immunosuppression included basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Currently, 2 years posttransplant, renal allograft function is stable (serum creatinine 1.09 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate 75 mL/min per 1.73 m2), and CML remains in deep molecular remission with imatinib. Imatinib-treated CML in deep molecular remission could be regarded as inactive malignancy and may therefore not be viewed as an absolute contraindication to kidney transplantation.