Neuroprotective effects of 1-O-hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone on ischaemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.J Cell Mol Med. 2020 Jul 17 [Online ahead of print]JC
1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone (HTHQ), a lipophilic phenolic agent, has an antioxidant activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging property. However, the role of HTHQ on cerebral ischaemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that HTHQ treatment ameliorated cerebral I/R injury in vivo, as demonstrated by the decreased infarct volume ration, neurological deficits, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. HTHQ treatment increased the levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream antioxidant protein, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, HTHQ treatment decreases oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis of PC12 cells following hypoxia and reperfusion (H/R) in vitro. Moreover, we provided evidence that PC12 cells were more vulnerable to H/R-induced oxidative stress after si-Nrf2 transfection, and the HTHQ-mediated protection was lost in PC12 cells transfected with siNrf2. In conclusion, these results suggested that HTHQ possesses neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress and apoptosis after cerebral I/R injury via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.