Neuropathogenic human coronaviruses: A review.Rev Med Virol. 2020 09; 30(5):e2118.RM
Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) have long been known as respiratory viruses. However, there are reports of neurological findings in HCoV infections, particularly in patients infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) amid Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, it is essential to interpret the interaction of HCoVs and the nervous system and apply this understanding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review of the literature analyses how HCoVs, in general, and SARS-CoV-2, in particular, affect the nervous system, highlights the various underlying mechanisms, addresses the associated neurological and psychiatric manifestations, and identifies the neurological risk factors involved. This review of literature shows the magnitude of neurological conditions associated with HCoV infections, including SARS-CoV-2. This review emphasises, that, during HCoV outbreaks, such as COVID-19, a focus on early detection of neurotropism, alertness for the resulting neurological complications, and the recognition of neurological risk factors are crucial to reduce the workload on hospitals, particularly intensive-care units and neurological departments.