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SARS-CoV-2 S1 is superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 subunit vaccine antigen.
J Med Virol. 2021 02; 93(2):892-898.JM

Abstract

Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32691875

Citation

Wang, Yunfei, et al. "SARS-CoV-2 S1 Is Superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 Subunit Vaccine Antigen." Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 93, no. 2, 2021, pp. 892-898.
Wang Y, Wang L, Cao H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 S1 is superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 subunit vaccine antigen. J Med Virol. 2021;93(2):892-898.
Wang, Y., Wang, L., Cao, H., & Liu, C. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 S1 is superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 subunit vaccine antigen. Journal of Medical Virology, 93(2), 892-898. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26320
Wang Y, et al. SARS-CoV-2 S1 Is Superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 Subunit Vaccine Antigen. J Med Virol. 2021;93(2):892-898. PubMed PMID: 32691875.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - SARS-CoV-2 S1 is superior to the RBD as a COVID-19 subunit vaccine antigen. AU - Wang,Yunfei, AU - Wang,Lichun, AU - Cao,Han, AU - Liu,Cunbao, Y1 - 2020/10/05/ PY - 2020/07/08/received PY - 2020/07/12/revised PY - 2020/07/16/accepted PY - 2020/7/22/pubmed PY - 2021/1/15/medline PY - 2020/7/22/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - S1 KW - SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine KW - antibody-dependent enhancement KW - receptor-binding domain KW - spike protein SP - 892 EP - 898 JF - Journal of medical virology JO - J Med Virol VL - 93 IS - 2 N2 - Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. SN - 1096-9071 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32691875/SARS_CoV_2_S1_is_superior_to_the_RBD_as_a_COVID_19_subunit_vaccine_antigen_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26320 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -