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Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses.
J Infect Dis. 2021 02 13; 223(3):409-415.JI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although the mechanisms of adaptive immunity to pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are still unknown, the immune response to the widespread endemic coronaviruses HKU1, 229E, NL63, and OC43 provide a useful reference for understanding repeat infection risk.

METHODS

Here we used data from proactive sampling carried out in New York City from fall 2016 to spring 2018. We combined weekly nasal swab collection with self-reports of respiratory symptoms from 191 participants to investigate the profile of recurring infections with endemic coronaviruses.

RESULTS

During the study, 12 individuals tested positive multiple times for the same coronavirus. We found no significant difference between the probability of testing positive at least once and the probability of a recurrence for the betacoronaviruses HKU1 and OC43 at 34 weeks after enrollment/first infection. We also found no significant association between repeat infections and symptom severity, but found strong association between symptom severity and belonging to the same family.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides evidence that reinfections with the same endemic coronavirus are not atypical in a time window shorter than 1 year and that the genetic basis of innate immune response may be a greater determinant of infection severity than immune memory acquired after a previous infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32692346

Citation

Galanti, Marta, and Jeffrey Shaman. "Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 223, no. 3, 2021, pp. 409-415.
Galanti M, Shaman J. Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses. J Infect Dis. 2021;223(3):409-415.
Galanti, M., & Shaman, J. (2021). Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 223(3), 409-415. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa392
Galanti M, Shaman J. Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses. J Infect Dis. 2021 02 13;223(3):409-415. PubMed PMID: 32692346.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Direct Observation of Repeated Infections With Endemic Coronaviruses. AU - Galanti,Marta, AU - Shaman,Jeffrey, PY - 2020/04/23/received PY - 2020/07/06/accepted PY - 2020/7/22/pubmed PY - 2021/3/3/medline PY - 2020/7/22/entrez KW - endemic coronaviruses KW - repeated endemic coronavirus infection KW - waning immunity to endemic coronavirus SP - 409 EP - 415 JF - The Journal of infectious diseases JO - J Infect Dis VL - 223 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the mechanisms of adaptive immunity to pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are still unknown, the immune response to the widespread endemic coronaviruses HKU1, 229E, NL63, and OC43 provide a useful reference for understanding repeat infection risk. METHODS: Here we used data from proactive sampling carried out in New York City from fall 2016 to spring 2018. We combined weekly nasal swab collection with self-reports of respiratory symptoms from 191 participants to investigate the profile of recurring infections with endemic coronaviruses. RESULTS: During the study, 12 individuals tested positive multiple times for the same coronavirus. We found no significant difference between the probability of testing positive at least once and the probability of a recurrence for the betacoronaviruses HKU1 and OC43 at 34 weeks after enrollment/first infection. We also found no significant association between repeat infections and symptom severity, but found strong association between symptom severity and belonging to the same family. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that reinfections with the same endemic coronavirus are not atypical in a time window shorter than 1 year and that the genetic basis of innate immune response may be a greater determinant of infection severity than immune memory acquired after a previous infection. SN - 1537-6613 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32692346/Direct_Observation_of_Repeated_Infections_With_Endemic_Coronaviruses_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiaa392 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -