Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Kidney Injury.J Urol. 2020 11; 204(5):918-925.JU
The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified and confirmed in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 is gradually posing a serious threat to global public health. In this review the characteristics and mechanism of kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection are summarized and contrasted. In particular, urine-oral transmission, prevention and management of the kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 are emphasized.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We searched PubMed® for English language articles published since 2003 with the keywords "SARS," "MERS," "COVID-19" or "kidney injury." ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for ongoing studies. We also used relevant data from websites, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
Similar to 2 other coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 caused severe respiratory syndrome with rapid progression and kidney injury. The infection process of SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by specifically binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Cases of COVID-19 combined with kidney impairment are associated with a higher risk of mortality than those without comorbidities. The pathological changes of the kidney are mainly due to local SARS-CoV-2 replication or indirectly by pro-inflammatory cytokine response. In addition, studies have confirmed the isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in urine, raising the possibility of urine-oral transmission. Ultimately this is significant for preventing potential urine-oral transmission and improving the cure rate of acute kidney injury with COVID-19.
Emerging evidence supports that in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections the prevalence of kidney injury is high and usually leads to a poor prognosis. Optimal prevention and management of kidney injury will benefit patients with COVID-19.