The inhibition of SlIAA9 mimics an increase in endogenous auxin and mediates changes in auxin and gibberellin signalling during parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.J Plant Physiol. 2020 Sep; 252:153238.JP
Parthenocarpic fruit formation can be achieved through the inhibition of SlIAA9, a negative regulator of auxin signalling in tomato plant. During early fruit development under SlIAA9 inhibition, cell division and cell expansion were observed. Bioactive gibberellin (GA) accumulated, but indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and trans-zeatin did not accumulate substantially. Furthermore, under SlIAA9 inhibition, auxin-responsive genes such as SlIAA2, -3, and -14 were upregulated, and SlARF7 was downregulated. These results indicate that SlIAA9 inhibition mimics an increase in auxin. The auxin biosynthesis genes SlTAR1, ToFZY, and ToFZY5 were stimulated by an increase in auxin and by auxin mimicking under SlIAA9 inhibition. However, SlTAR2 and ToFZY2 were upregulated only by pollination followed by high IAA accumulation. These results suggest that SlTAR2 and ToFZY2 play an important role in IAA synthesis in growing ovaries. GA synthesis was also activated by SlIAA9 inhibition through both the early-13-hydroxylation (for GA1 synthesis) and non-13-hydroxylation (GA4) pathways, indicating that fruit set caused by SlIAA9 inhibition was partially mediated by the GA pathway. SlIAA9 inhibition induced the expression of GA inactivation genes as well as GA biosynthesis genes except SlCPS during early parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato. This result suggests that inactivation genes play a role in fine-tuning the regulation of bioactive GA accumulation.