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Healthy brain, healthy life: a review of diet and exercise interventions to promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer's disease risk.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020 Oct; 45(10):1055-1065.AP

Abstract

With the world's population aging at a rapid rate, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has significantly increased. These statistics are alarming given recent evidence that a third of dementia cases may be preventable. The role of lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise, can directly alter the risk of disease development. However, an understanding of the effectiveness of dietary patterns and exercise strategies to reduce AD risk or improve brain function is not fully understood. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of diet and exercise on AD risk. Key components of the Western and Mediterranean diets are discussed in relation to AD progression, as well as how physical activity promotes brain health. Components of the Western diet (saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates) are detrimental to the brain, impair cognition, and increase AD pathologies. While components of the Mediterranean diet (polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants) are considered to be neuroprotective. Exercise can significantly reduce the risk of AD; however, specific exercise recommendations for older adults are limited and optimal intensity, duration, and type remains unknown. This review highlights important modifiable risk factors for AD and points out potential avenues for future research. Novelty Diet and exercise are modifiable factors that can improve brain health and reduce the risk of AD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants are neuroprotective. Exercise reduces neuroinflammation, improves brain insulin sensitivity, and increases brain derived neurotrophic factor.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. Centre for Neuroscience, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32717151

Citation

Baranowski, Bradley J., et al. "Healthy Brain, Healthy Life: a Review of Diet and Exercise Interventions to Promote Brain Health and Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Risk." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, vol. 45, no. 10, 2020, pp. 1055-1065.
Baranowski BJ, Marko DM, Fenech RK, et al. Healthy brain, healthy life: a review of diet and exercise interventions to promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer's disease risk. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020;45(10):1055-1065.
Baranowski, B. J., Marko, D. M., Fenech, R. K., Yang, A. J. T., & MacPherson, R. E. K. (2020). Healthy brain, healthy life: a review of diet and exercise interventions to promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer's disease risk. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 45(10), 1055-1065. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0910
Baranowski BJ, et al. Healthy Brain, Healthy Life: a Review of Diet and Exercise Interventions to Promote Brain Health and Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Risk. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020;45(10):1055-1065. PubMed PMID: 32717151.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Healthy brain, healthy life: a review of diet and exercise interventions to promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer's disease risk. AU - Baranowski,Bradley J, AU - Marko,Daniel M, AU - Fenech,Rachel K, AU - Yang,Alex J T, AU - MacPherson,Rebecca E K, Y1 - 2020/07/27/ PY - 2020/7/28/pubmed PY - 2021/7/20/medline PY - 2020/7/28/entrez KW - Mediterranean diet KW - Western diet KW - amyloid-β KW - brain derived neurotrophic factor KW - cognitive decline KW - dementia KW - déclin cognitif KW - démence KW - exercice KW - exercise KW - facteur neurotrophique dérivé du cerveau KW - facteurs de risque modifiables KW - modifiable risk factors KW - obesity KW - obésité KW - régime méditerranéen KW - régime occidental KW - tau KW - β-amyloïde SP - 1055 EP - 1065 JF - Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme JO - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab VL - 45 IS - 10 N2 - With the world's population aging at a rapid rate, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has significantly increased. These statistics are alarming given recent evidence that a third of dementia cases may be preventable. The role of lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise, can directly alter the risk of disease development. However, an understanding of the effectiveness of dietary patterns and exercise strategies to reduce AD risk or improve brain function is not fully understood. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of diet and exercise on AD risk. Key components of the Western and Mediterranean diets are discussed in relation to AD progression, as well as how physical activity promotes brain health. Components of the Western diet (saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates) are detrimental to the brain, impair cognition, and increase AD pathologies. While components of the Mediterranean diet (polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants) are considered to be neuroprotective. Exercise can significantly reduce the risk of AD; however, specific exercise recommendations for older adults are limited and optimal intensity, duration, and type remains unknown. This review highlights important modifiable risk factors for AD and points out potential avenues for future research. Novelty Diet and exercise are modifiable factors that can improve brain health and reduce the risk of AD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, and antioxidants are neuroprotective. Exercise reduces neuroinflammation, improves brain insulin sensitivity, and increases brain derived neurotrophic factor. SN - 1715-5320 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32717151/Healthy_brain_healthy_life:_a_review_of_diet_and_exercise_interventions_to_promote_brain_health_and_reduce_Alzheimer's_disease_risk_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -