Kawasaki-like disease in children with COVID-19: A hypothesis.Med Hypotheses. 2020 Oct; 143:110117.MH
With rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome- corona virus-2 (SARS-COV-2) globally, some new aspects of the disease have been reported. Recently, it has been reported the incidence of Kawasaki-like disease among children with COVID-19. Since, children had been known to be less severely affected by the virus in part due to the higher concentration of Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptor, this presentation has emerged concerns regarding the infection of children with SARS-COV2. ACE2 has anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-proliferative characteristics through converting angiotensin (Ag)-II to Ang (1-7). ACE2 receptor is downregulated by the SARS-COV through the spike protein of SARS-CoV (SARS-S) via a process that is tightly coupled with Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. TNF-α plays a key role in aneurysmal formation of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease (KD). Affected children by COVID-19 with genetically-susceptible to KD might have genetically under-expression of ACE2 receptor that might further decrease the expression of ACE2 due to the downregulation of the receptor by the virus in these patients. It appears that TNF- α might be the cause and the consequence of the ACE2 receptor downregulation which results in arterial walls aneurysm.