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The effect of lockdown on the outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: An ecological study.
PLoS One. 2020; 15(7):e0236779.Plos

Abstract

It is paramount to expand the knowledge base and minimize the consequences of the pandemic caused by the new Coronavirus (SARS-Cov2). Spain is among the most affected countries that declared a countrywide lockdown. An ecological study is presented herein, assessing the trends for incidence, mortality, hospitalizations, Intensive Care Unit admissions, and recoveries per autonomous community in Spain. Trends were evaluated by the Joinpoint software. The timeframe employed was when the lockdown was declared on March 14, 2020. Daily percentage changes were also calculated, with CI = 95% and p<0.05. An increase was detected, followed by reduction, for the evaluated indicators in most of the communities. Approximately 18.33 days were required for the mortality rates to decrease. The highest mortality rate was verified in Madrid (118.89 per 100,000 inhabitants) and the lowest in Melilla (2.31). The highest daily percentage increase in mortality occurred in Catalonia. Decreasing trends were identified after approximately two weeks of the institution of the lockdown by the government. Immediately the lockdown was declared, an increase of up to 33.96% deaths per day was verified in Catalonia. In contrast, Ceuta and Melilla presented significantly lower rates because they were still at the early stages of the pandemic at the moment of lockdown. The findings presented herein emphasize the importance of early and assertive decision-making to contain the pandemic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Graduate Program in Collective Health, Department of Collective Health, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil.Division of Surveillance and Situation Analysis, Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.Research Group on Methodology, Methods, Models, and Outcomes of Health and Social Sciences (M3O), Faculty of Health Sciences and Welfare, Center for Health and Social Care Research (CESS), University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC), Barcelona, Spain.Graduate Program in Collective Health, Department of Collective Health, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil. Research Group on Methodology, Methods, Models, and Outcomes of Health and Social Sciences (M3O), Faculty of Health Sciences and Welfare, Center for Health and Social Care Research (CESS), University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC), Barcelona, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32726363

Citation

Siqueira, Camila Alves Dos Santos, et al. "The Effect of Lockdown On the Outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: an Ecological Study." PloS One, vol. 15, no. 7, 2020, pp. e0236779.
Siqueira CADS, Freitas YNL, Cancela MC, et al. The effect of lockdown on the outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: An ecological study. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0236779.
Siqueira, C. A. D. S., Freitas, Y. N. L., Cancela, M. C., Carvalho, M., Oliveras-Fabregas, A., & de Souza, D. L. B. (2020). The effect of lockdown on the outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: An ecological study. PloS One, 15(7), e0236779. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236779
Siqueira CADS, et al. The Effect of Lockdown On the Outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: an Ecological Study. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0236779. PubMed PMID: 32726363.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of lockdown on the outcomes of COVID-19 in Spain: An ecological study. AU - Siqueira,Camila Alves Dos Santos, AU - Freitas,Yan Nogueira Leite de, AU - Cancela,Marianna de Camargo, AU - Carvalho,Monica, AU - Oliveras-Fabregas,Albert, AU - de Souza,Dyego Leandro Bezerra, Y1 - 2020/07/29/ PY - 2020/05/28/received PY - 2020/07/14/accepted PY - 2020/7/30/entrez PY - 2020/7/30/pubmed PY - 2020/8/22/medline SP - e0236779 EP - e0236779 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 15 IS - 7 N2 - It is paramount to expand the knowledge base and minimize the consequences of the pandemic caused by the new Coronavirus (SARS-Cov2). Spain is among the most affected countries that declared a countrywide lockdown. An ecological study is presented herein, assessing the trends for incidence, mortality, hospitalizations, Intensive Care Unit admissions, and recoveries per autonomous community in Spain. Trends were evaluated by the Joinpoint software. The timeframe employed was when the lockdown was declared on March 14, 2020. Daily percentage changes were also calculated, with CI = 95% and p<0.05. An increase was detected, followed by reduction, for the evaluated indicators in most of the communities. Approximately 18.33 days were required for the mortality rates to decrease. The highest mortality rate was verified in Madrid (118.89 per 100,000 inhabitants) and the lowest in Melilla (2.31). The highest daily percentage increase in mortality occurred in Catalonia. Decreasing trends were identified after approximately two weeks of the institution of the lockdown by the government. Immediately the lockdown was declared, an increase of up to 33.96% deaths per day was verified in Catalonia. In contrast, Ceuta and Melilla presented significantly lower rates because they were still at the early stages of the pandemic at the moment of lockdown. The findings presented herein emphasize the importance of early and assertive decision-making to contain the pandemic. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32726363/The_effect_of_lockdown_on_the_outcomes_of_COVID_19_in_Spain:_An_ecological_study_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236779 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -