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A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity.
Nature. 2020 10; 586(7830):572-577.Nat

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China.National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China.National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, School of Chemical Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Center for Biomedicine and Innovations, Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China.Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study and Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.National Kunming High-level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China. State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.Center for Biomedicine and Innovations, Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. kang.zhang@gmail.com.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. lugw@scu.edu.cn. Emergency Department, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. lugw@scu.edu.cn.Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. xiaweiwei@scu.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32726802

Citation

Yang, Jingyun, et al. "A Vaccine Targeting the RBD of the S Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Induces Protective Immunity." Nature, vol. 586, no. 7830, 2020, pp. 572-577.
Yang J, Wang W, Chen Z, et al. A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity. Nature. 2020;586(7830):572-577.
Yang, J., Wang, W., Chen, Z., Lu, S., Yang, F., Bi, Z., Bao, L., Mo, F., Li, X., Huang, Y., Hong, W., Yang, Y., Zhao, Y., Ye, F., Lin, S., Deng, W., Chen, H., Lei, H., Zhang, Z., ... Wei, X. (2020). A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity. Nature, 586(7830), 572-577. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2599-8
Yang J, et al. A Vaccine Targeting the RBD of the S Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Induces Protective Immunity. Nature. 2020;586(7830):572-577. PubMed PMID: 32726802.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity. AU - Yang,Jingyun, AU - Wang,Wei, AU - Chen,Zimin, AU - Lu,Shuaiyao, AU - Yang,Fanli, AU - Bi,Zhenfei, AU - Bao,Linlin, AU - Mo,Fei, AU - Li,Xue, AU - Huang,Yong, AU - Hong,Weiqi, AU - Yang,Yun, AU - Zhao,Yuan, AU - Ye,Fei, AU - Lin,Sheng, AU - Deng,Wei, AU - Chen,Hua, AU - Lei,Hong, AU - Zhang,Ziqi, AU - Luo,Min, AU - Gao,Hong, AU - Zheng,Yue, AU - Gong,Yanqiu, AU - Jiang,Xiaohua, AU - Xu,Yanfeng, AU - Lv,Qi, AU - Li,Dan, AU - Wang,Manni, AU - Li,Fengdi, AU - Wang,Shunyi, AU - Wang,Guanpeng, AU - Yu,Pin, AU - Qu,Yajin, AU - Yang,Li, AU - Deng,Hongxin, AU - Tong,Aiping, AU - Li,Jiong, AU - Wang,Zhenling, AU - Yang,Jinliang, AU - Shen,Guobo, AU - Zhao,Zhiwei, AU - Li,Yuhua, AU - Luo,Jingwen, AU - Liu,Hongqi, AU - Yu,Wenhai, AU - Yang,Mengli, AU - Xu,Jingwen, AU - Wang,Junbin, AU - Li,Haiyan, AU - Wang,Haixuan, AU - Kuang,Dexuan, AU - Lin,Panpan, AU - Hu,Zhengtao, AU - Guo,Wei, AU - Cheng,Wei, AU - He,Yanlin, AU - Song,Xiangrong, AU - Chen,Chong, AU - Xue,Zhihong, AU - Yao,Shaohua, AU - Chen,Lu, AU - Ma,Xuelei, AU - Chen,Siyuan, AU - Gou,Maling, AU - Huang,Weijin, AU - Wang,Youchun, AU - Fan,Changfa, AU - Tian,Zhixin, AU - Shi,Ming, AU - Wang,Fu-Sheng, AU - Dai,Lunzhi, AU - Wu,Min, AU - Li,Gen, AU - Wang,Guangyu, AU - Peng,Yong, AU - Qian,Zhiyong, AU - Huang,Canhua, AU - Lau,Johnson Yiu-Nam, AU - Yang,Zhenglin, AU - Wei,Yuquan, AU - Cen,Xiaobo, AU - Peng,Xiaozhong, AU - Qin,Chuan, AU - Zhang,Kang, AU - Lu,Guangwen, AU - Wei,Xiawei, Y1 - 2020/07/29/ PY - 2020/03/17/received PY - 2020/07/23/accepted PY - 2020/7/30/pubmed PY - 2020/10/30/medline PY - 2020/7/30/entrez SP - 572 EP - 577 JF - Nature JO - Nature VL - 586 IS - 7830 N2 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain. SN - 1476-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32726802/A_vaccine_targeting_the_RBD_of_the_S_protein_of_SARS_CoV_2_induces_protective_immunity_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2599-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -