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The SARS-CoV-2 and mental health: From biological mechanisms to social consequences.

Abstract

In December 2019, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) infection was reported. In only few weeks it has caused a global pandemic, with mortality reaching 3.4%, mostly due to a severe pneumonia. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the central nervous system (CNS) and mental health outcomes remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of other types of coronaviruses in the brain, especially in the brainstem. There is evidence that the novel coronavirus can penetrate CNS through the olfactory or circulatory route as well as it can have an indirect impact on the brain by causing cytokine storm. There are also first reports of neurological signs in patients infected by the SARS-Cov-2. They show that COVID-19 patients have neurologic manifestations like acute cerebrovascular disease, conscious disturbance, taste and olfactory disturbances. In addition, there are studies showing that certain psychopathological symptoms might appear in infected patients, including those related to mood and psychotic disorders as well as post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence also indicates that the pandemic might have a great impact on mental health from the global perspective, with medical workers being particularly vulnerable. In this article, we provide a review of studies investigating the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS and mental health outcomes. We describe neurobiology of the virus, highlighting the relevance to mental disorders. Furthermore, this article summarizes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 from the public health perspective. Finally, we present a critical appraisal of evidence and indicate future directions for studies in this field.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeże Ludwika Pasteura 10, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland.Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeże Ludwika Pasteura 10, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address: anna.gladka@student.umed.wroc.pl.Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeże Ludwika Pasteura 10, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address: blazej.misiak@umed.wroc.pl.Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeże Ludwika Pasteura 10, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address: agnieszka.cyran@umed.wroc.pl.Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeże Ludwika Pasteura 10, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address: joanna.rymaszewska@umed.wroc.pl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32730915

Citation

Szcześniak, Dorota, et al. "The SARS-CoV-2 and Mental Health: From Biological Mechanisms to Social Consequences." Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 104, 2021, p. 110046.
Szcześniak D, Gładka A, Misiak B, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 and mental health: From biological mechanisms to social consequences. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021;104:110046.
Szcześniak, D., Gładka, A., Misiak, B., Cyran, A., & Rymaszewska, J. (2021). The SARS-CoV-2 and mental health: From biological mechanisms to social consequences. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 104, 110046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110046
Szcześniak D, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 and Mental Health: From Biological Mechanisms to Social Consequences. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021 01 10;104:110046. PubMed PMID: 32730915.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The SARS-CoV-2 and mental health: From biological mechanisms to social consequences. AU - Szcześniak,Dorota, AU - Gładka,Anna, AU - Misiak,Błażej, AU - Cyran,Agnieszka, AU - Rymaszewska,Joanna, Y1 - 2020/07/28/ PY - 2020/06/13/received PY - 2020/07/20/revised PY - 2020/07/20/accepted PY - 2020/7/31/pubmed PY - 2020/9/18/medline PY - 2020/7/31/entrez SP - 110046 EP - 110046 JF - Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry JO - Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry VL - 104 N2 - In December 2019, the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) infection was reported. In only few weeks it has caused a global pandemic, with mortality reaching 3.4%, mostly due to a severe pneumonia. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the central nervous system (CNS) and mental health outcomes remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of other types of coronaviruses in the brain, especially in the brainstem. There is evidence that the novel coronavirus can penetrate CNS through the olfactory or circulatory route as well as it can have an indirect impact on the brain by causing cytokine storm. There are also first reports of neurological signs in patients infected by the SARS-Cov-2. They show that COVID-19 patients have neurologic manifestations like acute cerebrovascular disease, conscious disturbance, taste and olfactory disturbances. In addition, there are studies showing that certain psychopathological symptoms might appear in infected patients, including those related to mood and psychotic disorders as well as post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence also indicates that the pandemic might have a great impact on mental health from the global perspective, with medical workers being particularly vulnerable. In this article, we provide a review of studies investigating the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS and mental health outcomes. We describe neurobiology of the virus, highlighting the relevance to mental disorders. Furthermore, this article summarizes the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 from the public health perspective. Finally, we present a critical appraisal of evidence and indicate future directions for studies in this field. SN - 1878-4216 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32730915/The_SARS_CoV_2_and_mental_health:_From_biological_mechanisms_to_social_consequences_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-5846(20)30362-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -